Dating i relation vi

Blast From The Past

2020.10.26 01:08 lurkerhasarisen Blast From The Past

Back in 2011 the manosphere blog Alpha Game had an article about categorizing men beyond the usual dichotomy of Alpha Chads and Billy Betas. Fortunately, u/Gay4Android found an archival link to it here. (h/t)
I'm reposting it here for posterity. I'm not doing this because I think it's the definitive take on the subject (I don't), or that I even agree with it 100% (I don't), but because I think it's useful and I don't want to lose track of it again or for it to disappear from the internet entirely. My personal take is that most men fall into different categories depending on their situations and at different times in their lives, and this is an important addition to the praxis of the manosphere.

The socio-sexual hierarchy

I have a great deal of respect for Roissy, the various contributors at the Chateau, and many of the other theoreticians and practitioners of Game. However, I think the stark division of men into successful alphas and unsuccessful betas is too simplistic and reflects an artificial limitation on the broad applicability of Game beyond the sexual imperative. The inutility of the binary division should be obvious, since even those who subscribe to it tend to subdivide the categories into Greater and Lesser Alphas and High and Low Betas, while some also add the Omega category.
When we examine any conventional human social circle, we reliably observe a broader range of distinctly identifiable social archetypes that go well beyond mere sexual activity. And it is based on these observations that I have expanded the Alpha-Beta division into a hierarchy that covers the broad spectrum of socio-sexuality.
Alpha: The alpha is the tall, good-looking guy who is the center of both male and female attention. The classic star of the football team who is dating the prettiest cheerleader. The successful business executive with the beautiful, stylish, blonde, size zero wife. All the women are attracted to him, while all the men want to be him, or at least be his friend. At a social gathering like a party, he's usually the loud, charismatic guy telling self-flattering stories to a group of attractive women who are listening with interest. However, alphas are only interested in women to the extent that they exist for the alpha's gratification, physical and psychological, they are actually more concerned with their overall group status.
Lifetime sexual partners = 4x average+.
Beta: Betas are the good-looking guys who aren't as uniformly attractive or socially dominant as the Alpha, but are nevertheless confident, attractive to women, and do well with them. At the party, they are the loud guy's friends who showed up with the alcohol and who are flirting with the tier one women and cheerfully pairing up with the tier two women. Betas tend to genuinely like women and view them in a somewhat optimistic manner, but they don't have a lot of illusions about them either. Betas tend to be happy, secure in themselves, and are up for anything their alpha wants to do. When they marry, it is not infrequently to a woman who was one of the alpha's former girlfriends.
Lifetime sexual partners = 2-3x average.
Delta: The normal guy. Deltas are the great majority of men. They can't attract the most attractive women, so they usually aim for the second-tier women with very limited success, and stubbornly resist paying attention to all of the third-tier women who are comfortably in their league. This is ironic, because deltas would almost always be happier with their closest female equivalents. When a delta does manage to land a second-tier woman, he is constantly afraid that she will lose interest in him and will, not infrequently, drive her into the very loss of interest he fears by his non-stop dancing of attendance upon her. In a social setting, the deltas are the men clustered together in groups, each of them making an occasional foray towards various small gaggles of women before beating a hasty retreat when direct eye contact and engaged responses are not forthcoming. Deltas tend to put the female sex on pedestals and have overly optimistic expectations of them; if a man rhapsodizes about his better half or is an inveterate White Knight, he is almost certainly a delta. Deltas like women, but find them mysterious, confusing, and are sometimes secretly a little afraid of them.
Lifetime sexual partners = 1-1.5x average
Gamma: The introspective, the unusual, the unattractive, and all too often the bitter. Gammas are often intelligent, usually unsuccessful with women, and not uncommonly all but invisible to them, the gamma alternates between placing women on pedestals and hating the entire sex. This mostly depends upon whether an attractive woman happened to notice his existence or not that day. Too introspective for their own good, gammas are the men who obsess over individual women for extended periods of time and supply the ranks of stalkers, psycho-jealous ex-boyfriends, and the authors of excruciatingly romantic rhyming doggerel. In the unlikely event they are at the party, they are probably in the corner muttering darkly about the behavior of everyone else there... sometimes to themselves. Gammas tend to have have a worship/hate relationship with women, the current direction of which is directly tied to their present situation. However, they are sexual rejects, not social rejects.
Lifetime voluntary sexual partners = .5x average
Omega: The truly unfortunate. Omegas are the social losers who were never in the game. Sometimes creepy, sometimes damaged, often clueless, and always undesirable. They're not at the party. It would never have crossed anyone's mind to invite them in the first place. Omegas are either totally indifferent to women or hate them with a borderline homicidal fury.
Lifetime sexual partners < 2
Sigma: The outsider who doesn't play the social game and manage to win at it anyhow. The sigma is hated by alphas because sigmas are the only men who don't accept or at least acknowledge, however grudgingly, their social dominance. (NB: Alphas absolutely hate to be laughed at and a sigma can often enrage an alpha by doing nothing more than smiling at him.) Everyone else is vaguely confused by them. In a social situation, the sigma is the man who stops in briefly to say hello to a few friends accompanied by a Tier 1 girl that no one has ever seen before. Sigmas like women, but tend to be contemptuous of them. They are usually considered to be strange. Gammas often like to think they are sigmas, failing to understand that sigmas are not social rejects, they are at the top of the social hierarchy despite their refusal to play by its rules.
Lifetime sexual partners = 4x average+.
Lambda: Those men who have quite literally no interest in conventional male-female sexual relations. They clearly have their own hierarchy of sorts, but I can't say that I know much about it other than it appears to somehow involve youth, free weights, and mustaches.
Lifetime sexual partners = 10x average+
Now, it is important to keep in mind that it serves absolutely no purpose to identify yourself in some manner that you think is "better" or higher up the hierarchy. No one cares what you think you are and your opinion about your place in the social hierarchy is probably the opinion that matters least. There is no good or bad here, there is only what happens to be observable in social interaction. Consider: alphas seemingly rule the roost and yet they live in a world of constant conflict and status testing. Sigmas usually acquired their outsider status the hard way; one seldom becomes immune to the social hierarchy by virtue of mass popularity in one's childhood. Betas... okay, betas actually have it pretty good. But the important thing to keep in mind is that you can't improve your chances of success in the social game if you begin by attempting to deceive yourself as to where you stand vis-a-vis everyone else around you.
submitted by lurkerhasarisen to WhereAllTheGoodMenAre [link] [comments]

2020.10.25 18:14 botanisty [USA--ND] Postdoc in plant -omics (review begins 2 Nov 2020, 1 yr funding)
A post-doctoral research fellow position is available in the Department of Plant Sciences at North Dakota State University (NDSU) to conduct research on the post-harvest physiology of potato, with a specific emphasis on meristem dormancy and tuber sprouting. The project involves multi-omics (e.g., transcriptomics, metabolomics) data integration to identify and refine the regulatory molecular mechanisms and pathways that could serve as novel targets for manipulation of meristem dormancy in potato tubers.
Applicants should have a recent Ph.D. degree in plant physiology, genetics, genomics, molecular biology, computational biology or related field, and strong written and verbal communications skills in English. Candidates with peer-reviewed publications will be preferred.
The incumbent’s principal duties include: i) design and perform experiments; ii) keep appropriate experimental records and documentation; iii) analyze large-scale omics data, iv) integrate and summarize results; v) provide routine progress reports to the research team; vi) disseminate results through presentations and refereed journal publications.
The appointment is for 12 months with possible extension depending on satisfactory performance and funding. Salary commensurate with experience. NDSU offers a comprehensive benefits package with includes single or family health insurance coverage with premiums paid for by the university – with an effective date for new employees the first of the month following date of hire. Other benefits include, wellness benefits, basic life insurance, retirement plan, tuition waiver, annual leave, EAP, sick leave and holiday pay. Optional benefits include supplemental life, dental, vision, long-term care insurance, flexible spending account, and supplemental retirement plans.
Institution: North Dakota State University (NDSU)
Job location: Fargo, ND, USA
Initial screening date: November 2, 2020
Closing date: Open until filled
Interested candidates must submit the following material through NDSU employment site: i) a cover letter discussing how the stated qualifications are met; ii) a detailed curriculum vitae; iii) a list of publications; iv) contact information (i.e., names, phone numbers, institutional addresses, and email addresses) of three current references from the most recent positions held.
submitted by botanisty to botanycareers [link] [comments]

2020.10.24 17:52 Jesuslover34 Oh? You hate Scarlet? Name every war crime she has done.

ARTICLE 1. — The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for the present Convention in all circumstances.
ART. 2. — In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in peacetime, the present Convention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the state of war is not recognized by one of them. The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total occupation of the territory of a High Contracting Party, even if the said occupation meets with no armed resistance. Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a party to the present Convention, the Powers who are parties thereto shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations. They shall furthermore be bound by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof.
ART. 3. — In the case of armed conflict not of an international character occurring in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, each Party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a minimum, the following provisions: 1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated humanely, without any adverse distinction founded on race, colour, religion or faith, sex, birth or wealth, or any other similar criteria. To this end, the following acts are and shall remain prohib- ited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons: a) violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture; b) taking of hostages; c) outrages upon personal dignity, in particular, humiliating and degrading treatment; d) the passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples. 2) The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for. An impartial humanitarian body, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, may offer its services to the Parties to the conflict. The Parties to the conflict should further endeavour to bring into force, by means of special agreements, all or part of the other provisions of the present Convention. The application of the preceding provisions shall not affect the legal status of the Parties to the conflict.
ART. 4. — A. Prisoners of war, in the sense of the present Convention, are persons belonging to one of the following categories, who have fallen into the power of the enemy: 1) Members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict as well as members of militias or volunteer corps forming part of such armed forces. 2) Members of other militias and members of other volunteer corps, including those of organized resistance movements, belonging to a Party to the conflict and operating in or outside their own territory, even if this territory is occupied, provided that such militias or volunteer corps, including such organized resistance movements, fulfil the following conditions: a) that of being commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates; b) that of having a fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a distance; c) that of carrying arms openly; d) that of conducting their operations in accordance with the laws and customs of war. 3) Members of regular armed forces who profess allegiance to a government or an authority not recognized by the Detaining Power. 4) Persons who accompany the armed forces without actually being members thereof, such as civilian members of military aircraft crews, war correspondents, supply contractors, members of labour units or of services responsible for the welfare of the armed forces, provided that they have received authorization from the armed forces which they accompany, who shall provide them for that purpose with an identity card similar to the annexed model. 5) Members of crews, including masters, pilots and apprentices of the merchant marine and the crews of civil aircraft of the Parties to the conflict, who do not benefit by more favourable treatment under any other provisions of international law. 6) Inhabitants of a non-occupied territory who, on the approach of the enemy, spontaneously take up arms to resist the invading forces, without having had time to form themselves into regular armed units, provided they carry arms openly and respect the laws and customs of war. B. The following shall likewise be treated as prisoners of war under the present Convention: 1) Persons belonging, or having belonged, to the armed forces of the occupied country, if the occupying Power considers it necessary by reason of such allegiance to intern them, even though it has originally liberated them while hostilities were going on outside the territory it occupies, in particular where such persons have made an unsuccessful attempt to rejoin the armed forces to which they belong and which are engaged in combat, or where they fail to comply with a summons made to them with a view to internment. 2) The persons belonging to one of the categories enumerated in the present Article, who have been received by neutral or non- belligerent Powers on their territory and whom these Powers are required to intern under international law, without prejudice to any more favourable treatment which these Powers may choose to give and with the exception of Articles 8, 10, 15, 30, fifth paragraph, 58-67, 92, 126 and, where diplomatic relations exist between the Parties to the conflict and the neutral or non-belligerent Power concerned, those Articles concerning the Protecting Power. Where such diplomatic relations exist, the Parties to a conflict on whom these persons depend shall be allowed to perform towards them the functions of a Protecting Power as provided in the present Convention, without prejudice to the functions which these Parties normally exercise in conformity with diplomatic and consular usage and treaties. C. This Article shall in no way affect the status of medical personnel and chaplains as provided for in Article 33 of the present Convention.
ART. 5. — The present Convention shall apply to the persons referred to in Article 4 from the time they fall into the power of the enemy and until their final release and repatriation. Should any doubt arise as to whether persons having committed a belligerent act and having fallen into the hands of the enemy belong to any of the categories enumerated in Article 4, such persons shall enjoy the protection of the present Convention until such time as their status has been determined by a competent tribunal.
ART. 6. — In addition to the agreements expressly provided for in Articles 10, 23, 28, 33, 60, 65, 66, 67, 72, 73, 75, 109, 110, 118, 119, 122 and 132, the High Contracting Parties may conclude other special agreements for all matters concerning which they may deem it suitable to make separate provision. No special agreement shall adversely affect the situation of prisoners of war, as defined by the present Convention, nor restrict the rights which it confers upon them. Prisoners of war shall continue to have the benefit of such agreements as long as the Convention is applicable to them, except where express provisions to the contrary are contained in the aforesaid or in subsequent agreements, or where more favourable measures have been taken with regard to them by one or other of the Parties to the conflict.
ART. 7. — Prisoners of war may in no circumstances renounce in part or in entirety the rights secured to them by the present Convention, and by the special agreements referred.
ART. 8. — The present Convention shall be applied with the co- operation and under the scrutiny of the Protecting Powers whose duty it is to safeguard the interests of the Parties to the conflict. For this purpose, the Protecting Powers may appoint, apart from their diplomatic or consular staff, delegates from amongst their own nationals or the nationals of other neutral Powers. The said delegates shall be subject to the approval of the Power with which they are to carry out their duties. The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate to the greatest extent possible the task of the representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers. The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall not in any case exceed their mission under the present Convention. They shall, in particular, take account of the imperative necessities of security of the State wherein they carry out their duties.
ART. 9. — The provisions of the present Convention constitute no obstacle to the humanitarian activities which the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other impartial humanitarian organization may, subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict concerned, undertake for the protection of prisoners of war and for their relief.
ART. 10. — The High Contracting Parties may at any time agree to entrust to an organization which offers all guarantees of impartiality and efficacy the duties incumbent on the Protecting Powers by virtue of the present Convention. When prisoners of war do not benefit or cease to benefit, no matter for what reason, by the activities of a Protecting Power or of an organization provided for in the first paragraph above, the Detaining Power shall request a neutral State, or such an organization, to undertake the functions performed under the present Convention by a Protecting Power designated by the Parties to a conflict. If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the Detaining Power shall request or shall accept, subject to the provisions of this Article, the offer of the services of a humanitarian organization, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, to assume the humanitarian functions performed by Protecting Powers under the present Convention. Any neutral Power or any organizatione invited by the Power concerned or offering itself for these purposes, shall be required to act with a sense of responsibility towards the Party to the conflict on which persons protected by the present Convention depend, and shall be required to furnish sufficient assurances that it is in a position to undertake the appropriate functions and to discharge them impartially. No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by special agreements between Powers one of which is restricted, even temporarily, in its freedom to negotiate with the other Power or its allies by reason of military events, more particularly where the whole, or a substantial part, of the territory of the said Power is occupied. Whenever in the present Convention mention is made of a Protecting Power, such mention applies to substitute organizations in the sense of the present Article.
ART. 11. — In cases where they deem it advisable in the interest of protected persons, particularly in cases of disagreement between the Parties to the conflict as to the application or interpretation of the provisions of the present Convention, the Protecting Powers shall lend their good offices with a view to settling the disagreement. For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either at the invitation of one Party or on its own initiative, propose to the Parties to the conflict a meeting of their representatives, and in particular of the authorities responsible for prisoners of war, possibly on neutral territory suitably chosen. The Parties to the conflict shall be bound to give effect to the proposals made to them for this purpose. The Protecting Powers may, if necessary, propose for approval by the Parties to the conflict a person belonging to a neutral Power, or delegated by the International Committee of the Red Cross, who shall be invited to take part in such a meeting.
ART. 12. — Prisoners of war are in the hands of the enemy Power, but not of the individuals or military units who have captured them. Irrespective of the individual responsibilities that may exist, the Detaining Power is responsible for the treatment given them. Prisoners of war may only be transferred by the Detaining Power to a Power which is a party to the Convention and after the Detaining Power has satisfied itself of the willingness and ability of such transferee Power to apply the Convention. When prisoners of war are transferred under such circumstances, responsibility for the application of the Convention rests on the Power accepting them while they are in its custody. Nevertheless if that Power fails to carry out the provisions of the Convention in any important respect, the Power by whom the prisoners of war were transferred shall, upon being notified by the Protecting Power, take effective measures to correct the situation or shall request the return of the prisoners of war. Such requests must be complied with.
ART. 13. — Prisoners of war must at all times be humanely treated. Any unlawful act or omission by the Detaining Power causing death or seriously endangering the health of a prisoner of war in its custody is prohibited, and will be regarded as a serious breach of the present Convention. In particular, no prisoner of war may be subjected to physical mutilation or to medical or scientific experiments of any kind which are not justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the prisoner concerned and carried out in his interest. Likewise, prisoners of war must at all times be protected, particularly against acts of violence or intimidation and against insults and public curiosity. Measures of reprisal against prisoners of war are prohibited.
ART. 14. — Prisoners of war are entitled in all circumstances to respect for their persons and their honour. Women shall be treated with all the regard due to their sex and shall in all cases benefit by treatment as favourable as that granted to men. Prisoners of war shall retain the full civil capacity which they enjoyed at the time of their capture. The Detaining Power may not restrict the exercise, either within or without its own territory, of the rights such capacity confers except in so far as the captivity requires.
ART. 15. — The Power detaining prisoners of war shall be bound to provide free of charge for their maintenance and for the medical attention required by their state of health.
ART. 16. — Taking into consideration the provisions of the present Convention relating to rank and sex, and subject to any privileged treatment which may be accorded to them by reason of their state of health, age or professional qualifications, all prisoners of war shall be treated alike by the Detaining Power, without any adverse distinction based on race, nationality, religious belief or political opinions, or any other distinction founded on similar criteria.
ART. 17. — Every prisoner of war, when questioned on the subject, is bound to give only his surname, first names and rank, date of birth, and army, regimental, personal or serial number, or failing this, equivalent information. If he wilfully infringes this rule, he may render himself liable to a restriction of the privileges accorded to his rank or status. Each Party to a conflict is required to furnish the persons under its jurisdiction who are liable to become prisoners of war, with an identity card showing the owner’s surname, first names, rank, army, regimental, personal or serial number or equivalent information, and date of birth. The identity card may, furthermore, bear the signature or the finger-prints, or both, of the owner, and may bear, as well, any other information the Party to the conflict may wish to add concerning persons belonging to its armed forces. As far as possible the card shall measure 6.5 x 10 cm and shall be issued in duplicate. The identity card shall be shown by the prisoner of war upon demand, but may in no case be taken away from him. No physical or mental torture, nor any other form of coercion, may be inflicted on prisoners of war to secure from them information of any kind whatever. Prisoners of war who refuse to answer may not be threatened, insulted, or exposed to any unpleasant or disadvantageous treatment of any kind. Prisoners of war who, owing to their physical or mental condition, are unable to state their identity, shall be handed over to the medical service. The identity of such prisoners shall be established by all possible means, subject to the provisions of the preceding paragraph. The questioning of prisoners of war shall be carried out in a language which they understand.
ART. 18. — All effects and articles of personal use, except arms, horses, military equipment and military documents, shall remain in the possession of prisoners of war, likewise their metal helmets and gas masks and like articles issued for personal protection. Effects and articles used for their clothing or feeding shall likewise remain in their possession, even if such effects and articles belong to their regulation military equipment. At no time should prisoners of war be without identity documents. The Detaining Power shall supply such documents to prisoners of war who possess none. Badges of rank and nationality, decorations and articles having above all a personal or sentimental value may not be taken from prisoners of war. Sums of money carried by prisoners of war may not be taken away from them except by order of an officer, and after the amount and particulars of the owner have been recorded in a special register and an itemized receipt has been given, legibly inscribed with the name, rank and unit of the person issuing the said receipt. Sums in the currency of the Detaining Power, or which are changed into such currency at the prisoner’s request, shall be placed to the credit of the prisoner’s account as provided in Article 64. The Detaining Power may withdraw articles of value from prisoners of war only for reasons of security; when such articles are withdrawn, the procedure laid down for sums of money impounded shall apply. Such objects, likewise the sums taken away in any currency other than that of the Detaining Power and the conversion of which has not been asked for by the owners, shall be kept in the custody of the Detaining Power and shall be returned in their initial shape to prisoners of war at the end of their captivity.
ART. 19. — Prisoners of war shall be evacuated, as soon as possible after their capture, to camps situated in an area far enough from the combat zone for them to be out of danger. Only those prisoners of war who, owing to wounds or sickness, would run greater risks by being evacuated than by remaining where they are, may be temporarily kept back in a danger zone. Prisoners of war shall not be unnecessarily exposed to danger while awaiting evacuation from a fighting zone.
ART. 20. — The evacuation of prisoners of war shall always be effected humanely and in conditions similar to those for the forces of the Detaining Power in their changes of station. The Detaining Power shall supply prisoners of war who are being evacuated with sufficient food and potable water, and with the necessary clothing and medical attention. The Detaining Power shall take all suitable precautions to ensure their safety during evacuation, and shall establish as soon as possible a list of the prisoners of war who are evacuated. If prisoners of war must, during evacuation, pass through transit camps, their stay in such camps shall be as brief as possible.
ART. 21. — The Detaining Power may subject prisoners of war to internment. It may impose on them the obligation of not leaving, beyond certain limits, the camp where they are interned, or if the said camp is fenced in, of not going outside its perimeter. Subject to the provisions of the present Convention relative to penal and disciplinary sanctions, prisoners of war may not be held in close confinement except where necessary to safeguard their health and then only during the continuation of the circumstances which make such confinement necessary. Prisoners of war may be partially or wholly released on parole or promise, in so far as is allowed by the laws of the Power on which they depend. Such measures shall be taken particularly in cases where this may contribute to the improvement of their state of health. No prisoner of war shall be compelled to accept liberty on parole or promise. Upon the outbreak of hostilities, each Party to the conflict shall notify the adverse Party of the laws and regulations allowing or forbidding its own nationals to accept liberty on parole or promise. Prisoners of war who are paroled or who have given their promise in conformity with the laws and regulations so notified, are bound on their personal honour scrupulously to fulfil, both towards the Power on which they depend and towards the Power which has captured them, the engagements of their paroles or promises. In such cases, the Power on which they depend is bound neither to require nor to accept from them any service incompatible with the parole or promise given.
ART. 22. — Prisoners of war may be interned only in premises located on land and affording every guarantee of hygiene and healthfulness. Except in particular cases which are justified by the interest of the prisoners themselves, they shall not be interned in penitentiaries. Prisoners of war interned in unhealthy areas, or where the climate is injurious for them, shall be removed as soon as possible to a more favourable climate. The Detaining Power shall assemble prisoners of war in camps or camp compounds according to their nationality, language and customs, provided that such prisoners shall not be separated from prisoners of war belonging to the armed forces with which they were serving at the time of their capture, except with their consent.
ART. 23. — No prisoner of war may at any time be sent to, or detained in areas where he may be exposed to the fire of the combat zone, nor may his presence be used to render certain points or areas immune from military operations. Prisoners of war shall have shelters against air bombardment and other hazards of war, to the same extent as the local civilian population. With the exception of those engaged in the protection of their quarters against the aforesaid hazards, they may enter such shelters as soon as possible after the giving of the alarm. Any other protective measure taken in favour of the population shall also apply to them. Detaining Powers shall give the Powers concerned, through the intermediary of the Protecting Powers, all useful information regarding the geographical location of prisoner of war camps. Whenever military considerations permit, prisoner of war camps shall be indicated in the day-time by the letters PW or PG, placed so as to be clearly visible from the air. The Powers concerned may, however, agree upon any other system of marking. Only prisoner of war camps shall be marked as such.
ART. 24. — Transit or screening camps of a permanent kind shall be fitted out under conditions similar to those described in the present Section, and the prisoners therein shall have the same treatment as in other camps.
ART. 25. — Prisoners of war shall be quartered under conditions as favourable as those for the forces of the Detaining Power who are billeted in the same area. The said conditions shall make allowance for the habits and customs of the prisoners and shall in no case be prejudicial to their health. The foregoing provisions shall apply in particular to the dormitories of prisoners of war as regards both total surface and minimum cubic space, and the general installations, bedding and blankets. The premises provided for the use of prisoners of war individually or collectively, shall be entirely protected from dampness and adequately heated and lighted, in particular between dusk and lights out. All precautions must be taken against the danger of fire. In any camps in which women prisoners of war, as well as men, are accommodated, separate dormitories shall be provided for them.
ART. 26. — The basic daily food rations shall be sufficient in quantity, quality and variety to keep prisoners of war in good health and to prevent loss of weight or the development of nutritional deficiencies. Account shall also be taken of the habitual diet of the prisoners. The Detaining Power shall supply prisoners of war who work with such additional rations as are necessary for the labour on which they are employed. Sufficient drinking water shall be supplied to prisoners of war. The use of tobacco shall be permitted. Prisoners of war shall, as far as possible, be associated with the preparation of their meals; they may be employed for that purpose in the kitchens. Furthermore, they shall be given the means of preparing, themselves, the additional food in their possession. Adequate premises shall be provided for messing. Collective disciplinary measures affecting food are prohibited.
ART. 27. — Clothing, underwear and footwear shall be supplied to prisoners of war in sufficient quantities by the Detaining Power, which shall make allowance for the climate of the region where the prisoners are detained. Uniforms of enemy armed forces captured by the Detaining Power should, if suitable for the climate, be made available to clothe prisoners of war. The regular replacement and repair of the above articles shall be assured by the Detaining Power. In addition, prisoners of war who work shall receive appropriate clothing, wherever the nature of the work demands.
ART. 28. — Canteens shall be installed in all camps, where prisoners of war may procure foodstuffs, soap and tobacco and ordinary articles in daily use. The tariff shall never be in excess of local market prices. The profits made by camp canteens shall be used for the benefit of the prisoners; a special fund shall be created for this purpose. The prisoners’ representative shall have the right to collaborate in the management of the canteen and of this fund. When a camp is closed down, the credit balance of the special fund shall be handed to an international welfare organization, to be employed for the benefit of prisoners of war of the same nationality as those who have contributed to the fund. In case of a general repatriation, such profits shall be kept by the Detaining Power, subject to any agreement to the contrary between the Powers concerned. CHAPTER III Hygiene and Medical Attention
ART. 29. — The Detaining Power shall be bound to take all sanitary measures necessary to ensure the cleanliness and healthfulness of camps, and to prevent epidemics. Prisoners of war shall have for their use, day and night, conveniences which conform to the rules of hygiene and are maintained in a constant state of cleanliness. In any camps in which women prisoners of war are accommodated, separate conveniences shall be provided for them. Also, apart from the baths and showers with which the camps shall be furnished, prisoners of war shall be provided with sufficient water and soap for their personal toilet and for washing their personal laundry; the necessary installations, facilities and time shall be granted them for that purpose.
ART. 30. — Every camp shall have an adequate infirmary where prisoners of war may have the attention they require, as well as appropriate diet. Isolation wards shall, if necessary, be set aside for cases of contagious or mental disease. Prisoners of war suffering from serious disease, or whose condition necessitates special treatment, a surgical operation or hospital care, must be admitted to any military or civilian medical unit where such treatment can be given, even if their repatriation is contemplated in the near future. Special facilities shall be afforded for the care to be given to the disabled, in particular to the blind, and for their rehabilitation, pending repatriation. Prisoners of war shall have the attention, preferably, of medical personnel of the Power on which they depend and, if possible, of their nationality. Prisoners of war may not be prevented from presenting themselves to the medical authorities for examination. The detaining authorities shall, upon request, issue to every prisoner who has undergone treatment, an official certificate indicating the nature of his illness or injury, and the duration and kind of treatment received. A duplicate of this certificate shall be forwarded to the Central Prisoners of War Agency The costs of treatment, including those of any apparatus necessary for the maintenance of prisoners of war in good health, particularly dentures and other artificial appliances, and spectacles, shall be borne by the Detaining Power.
ART. 31. — Medical inspections of prisoners of war shall be held at least once a month. They shall include the checking and the recording of the weight of each prisoner of war. Their purpose shall be, in particular, to supervise the general state of health, nutrition and cleanliness of prisoners and to detect contagious diseases, especially tuberculosis, malaria and venereal disease. For this purpose the most efficient methods available shall be employed, e.g. periodic mass miniature radiography for the early detection of tuberculosis.
ART. 32. — Prisoners of war who, though not attached to the medical service of their armed forces, are physicians, surgeons, dentists, nurses or medical orderlies, may be required by the Detaining Power to exercise their medical functions in the interests of prisoners of war dependent on the same Power. In that case they shall continue to be prisoners of war, but shall receive the same treatment as corresponding medical personnel retained by the Detaining Power. They shall be exempted from any other work under Article 49.
ART. 33. — Members of the medical personnel and chaplains while retained by the Detaining Power with a view to assisting prisoners of war, shall not be considered as prisoners of war. They shall, however, receive as a minimum the benefits and protection of the present Convention, and shall also be granted all facilities necessary to provide for the medical care of, and religious ministration to prisoners of war. They shall continue to exercise their medical and spiritual functions for the benefit of prisoners of war, preferably those belonging to the armed forces upon which they depend, within the scope of the military laws and regulations of the Detaining Power and under the control of its competent services, in accordance with their professional etiquette. They shall also benefit by the following facilities in the exercise of their medical or spiritual functions: a) They shall be authorized to visit periodically prisoners of war situated in working detachments or in hospitals outside the camp. For this purpose, the Detaining Power shall place at their disposal the necessary means of transport. b) The senior medical officer in each camp shall be responsible to the camp military authorities for everything connected with the activities of retained medical personnel. For this purpose, Parties to the conflict shall agree at the outbreak of hostilities on the subject of the corresponding ranks of the medical personnel, including that of societies mentioned in Article 26 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949. This senior medical officer, as well as chaplains, shall have the right to deal with the competent authorities of the camp on all questions relating to their duties. Such authorities shall afford them all necessary facilities for correspondence relating to these questions. c) Although they shall be subject to the internal discipline of the camp in which they are retained, such personnel may not be compelled to carry out any work other than that concerned with their medical or religious duties. During hostilities, the Parties to the conflict shall agree concerning the possible relief of retained personnel and shall settle the procedure to be followed.
ART. 34. — Prisoners of war shall enjoy complete latitude in the exercise of their religious duties, including attendance at the service of their faith, on condition that they comply with the disciplinary routine prescribed by the military authorities. Adequate premises shall be provided where religious services may be held.
ART. 35. — Chaplains who fall into the hands of the enemy Power and who remain or are retained with a view to assisting prisoners of war, shall be allowed to minister to them and to exercise freely their ministry amongst prisoners of war of the same religion, in accordance with their religious conscience. They shall be allocated among the various camps and labour detachments containing prisoners of war belonging to the same forces, speaking the same language or practising the same religion. They shall enjoy the necessary facilities, including the means of transport provided for in Article 33, for visiting the prisoners of war outside their camp. They shall be free to correspond, subject to censorship, on matters concerning their religious duties with the ecclesiastical authorities in the country of detention and with international religious organizations. Letters and cards which they may send for this purpose shall be in addition to the quota provided for in Article 71.
ART. 36. — Prisoners of war who are ministers of religion, without having officiated as chaplains to their own forces, shall be at liberty, whatever their denomination, to minister freely to the members of their community. For this purpose, they shall receive the same treatment as the chaplains retained by the Detaining Power. They shall not be obliged to do any other work.
ART. 37. — When prisoners of war have not the assistance of a retained chaplain or of a prisoner of war minister of their faith, a minister belonging to the prisoners’ or a similar denomination, or in his absence a qualified layman, if such a course is feasible from a confessional point of view, shall be appointed, at the request of the prisoners concerned, to fill this office. This appointment, subject to the approval of the Detaining Power, shall take place with the agreement of the community of prisoners concerned and, wherever necessary, with the approval of the local religious authorities of the same faith. The person thus appointed shall comply with all regulations established by the Detaining Power in the interests of discipline and military security.
ART. 38. — While respecting the individual preferences of every prisoner, the Detaining Power shall encourage the practice of intellectual, educational, and recreational pursuits, sports and games amongst prisoners, and shall take the measures necessary to ensure the exercise thereof by providing them with adequate premises and necessary equipment. Prisoners shall have opportunities for taking physical exercise, including sports and games and for being out of doors. Sufficient open spaces shall be provided for this purpose in all camps. CHAPTER VI Discipline
ART. 39. — Every prisoner of war camp shall be put under the immediate authority of a responsible commissioned officer belonging to the regular armed forces of the Detaining Power. Such officer shall have in his possession a copy of the present Convention; he shall ensure that its provisions are known to the camp staff and the guard and shall be responsible, under the direction of his government, for its application. Prisoners of war, with the exception of officers, must salute and show to all officers of the Detaining Power the external marks of respect provided for by the regulations applying in their own forces. Officer prisoners of war are bound to salute only officers of a higher rank of the Detaining Power; they must, however, salute the camp commander regardless of his rank.
submitted by Jesuslover34 to BrawlhallaCircleJerk [link] [comments]

2020.10.23 23:48 adriflo29 Jigsaw Casting Ltd. Is Looking For Men living with Diabetes type 2 who are using 'Freestyle Libre' ™ for a Testimonial Campaign in Toronto.

Production and talent will follow all COVID SAFETY ON SET PROTOCOL, see more details here:
We are seeking individuals who are using Freestyle Libre to measure their Glucose levels, to give their testimonial experiences and stories on how this product is helping them better manage their diabetes.
Application Criteria: - Looking for MEN, ages 45-65. - You have a BMI of 25 or above. (Body Mass index) - You must be an individual living with Diabetes Type 2. - Talent should represent the multicultural reality of Canada. - They should have an emotional, inspiring and relatable story about how FreeStyle Libre has given Freedom back in their life and is helping them better manage their diabetes.
Details & Submission Information
If interested in this campaign, please apply online to:
Submissions are due ASAP or before November 3 at 9:00 am
You must be available for these key dates (in Toronto): ONLINE INTERVIEW: November 14, 15, 16 or 17, 2020. SHOOT: One day between these dates - November 30, December 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6. Can work around your schedule.
Questions or Concerns please email us: [email protected]
Please note this is a UNION job, under ACTRA #706, non union members or those living with Diabetes are welcome to apply. An honorarium will be paid to the participant selected to be in the testimonial.
submitted by adriflo29 to diabetes_t2 [link] [comments]

2020.10.23 23:47 adriflo29 Jigsaw Casting Ltd. Is Looking For Men living with Diabetes type 2 who are using 'Freestyle Libre' ™ for a Testimonial Campaign in Toronto.

Jigsaw Casting Ltd. Is Looking For Men living with Diabetes type 2 who are using 'Freestyle Libre' ™ for a Testimonial Campaign in Toronto.
Production and talent will follow all COVID SAFETY ON SET PROTOCOL, see more details here:
We are seeking individuals who are using Freestyle Libre to measure their Glucose levels, to give their testimonial experiences and stories on how this product is helping them better manage their diabetes.
Application Criteria: - Looking for MEN, ages 45-65. - You have a BMI of 25 or above. (Body Mass index) - You must be an individual living with Diabetes Type 2. - Talent should represent the multicultural reality of Canada. - They should have an emotional, inspiring and relatable story about how FreeStyle Libre has given Freedom back in their life and is helping them better manage their diabetes.
Details & Submission Information
If interested in this campaign, please apply online to:
Submissions are due ASAP or before November 3 at 9:00 am
You must be available for these key dates (in Toronto): ONLINE INTERVIEW: November 14, 15, 16 or 17, 2020. SHOOT: One day between these dates - November 30, December 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6. Can work around your schedule.
Questions or Concerns please email us: [email protected]
Please note this is a UNION job, under ACTRA #706, non union members or those living with Diabetes are welcome to apply. An honorarium will be paid to the participant selected to be in the testimonial.
submitted by adriflo29 to diabetes [link] [comments]

2020.10.23 22:47 weezyFly [MD] Bored housewife next door is using the HOA to grief us over petty things because of some personal vendetta

Hey guys, so I live in MD right now with 2 of my friends im a townhouse that one one of them owns. We're all around 25 years old, bachelors, and prior military. I'm writing this on behalf of all of us, just some background knowledge.
Basically, we have a Karen next door who hates our guts and does everything in her power to cause us grief. Not sure what Karen's deal us but I assume it has something to do with her Bob cut and owning her first home in her mid 30s. My first interaction with Karen was a week after I moved into my friends house when she knocked on the door and started yelling at me about parking my car in front of my drive way. Apparently she a problem with us parking like that overnight and it violated the terms of the HOA guidelines. First interaction, she was very unpleasant and rambling about how she owns her home and doesn't rent it and basically implying I am trash because she thinks I rent and of my minor indiscretion. Okay whatever, I move the car when she asked. I continue to park like that every now and again but only for a few hours and I never leave it like that over night. Whether I'm parked like that or not it doesn't affect Karen's ability to leave her house and do her boring routine activities like existing.
Anyways, over the course of a year Karen would call the police anytime we have people at our house and claim a noise complaint regardless of if there was noise or not. Once we were watching a movie with some people and the cops were wondering if they had the right place... Once Covid hit Karen took it upon herself to inform the authorities anytime we had people at our house. The rule in Maryland is no more than ten (10) people in a gathering. We only have the 3 of us that live there as well as our 2 friends who live down the street who are with us everyday.
Karen's called the HOA on us a handful of times over things like parking, our trash cans being in our driveway (a lot of our neighbors do this), and our garage gym.
This was our most recent letter from the HOA:
" I am once again reaching out regarding continuing concerns regarding the upkeep of your unit.
It appears as though your garage has been converted to a home gym. Section 8 of Article VI states that garages are to be used for the storage of vehicles only and garages are not to be converted for any use other than the parking of vehicles. I don’t believe this would have otherwise posed an issue however you or your tenants frequently park blocking the roadway and neighboring driveways. They also play music at an audible level so that neighbors have complained. Your tenants have seemed unamenable to any compromise related to any of the above concerns even when approached.
We have never been approached by any of our neighbors about our music. We also keep 2 motorcycles in the garage along with gym equipment. We wouldn't be able to keep a car in there anyway with the motorcycles regardless of the gym. We also stopped parking in the way that Karen doesn't like, we just park farther away in one of the "approved" spots and have been for 3 months now.
The trash and recycling containers are also being stored outside. Section 12 of the same Article requires that trash/recycling containers be stored out of sight when not out for collection. I suspect the garage gym impedes the ability to properly store the trash containers however this is unacceptable.
Most of our neighbors keep their trash cans the same way and have for years.
The upkeep of the yard area is also an ongoing concern. Frequently the grass is allowed to grow to a foot or more taller before they trim it and the association was required to have the back trimmed at least once this season. Dogs from the unit defecate all over the back area and it is not properly cleaned up. Additionally, there is a towel covering the back window which is described in Section 19.
There's a handful of times where the grass overgrown but not enough to warrant this response. We don't own any dogs. Maybe a friend has had a dog over once or twice but we never go to the "back area" I assume someone else does and Karen is villifying us. There's a bedroom on the ground floor that gets a lot of light so we keep a blanket over the back window. It provides privacy as well as blocks the sun. It's attached with push pins. It's the same as having a curtain over the back window... So fucking stupid.
As the unit owner, you are responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of your unit. If you are renting your unit and do not live onsite, you are still responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of your unit. Please note that if the violations continue, the Board will proceed with all available remedy under MD HOA law and recommend that the Anne Arundel County rental authority investigate for possible rental violations.
The homeowner is my friend and he lives with us. Theres no rental laws in play here.
Please note that these violations must be remedied within 15 days of the date of this correspondence. Formal violation notice will follow via regular mail.
Feel free to contact me with any questions or concerns. "
Basically the question is what can they actually do? We're not getting rid of the gym. There's some minor things we can do like move the trashcans out of sight, the parking has already been addressed, and make sure we trim the grass more often but what can they actually do if we keep the garage the way it is? Nobody in our neighborhood has talked to us about anything and we're pretty friendly with most of our neighbors.
I didn't spend so much time overseas so some bored housewife can get us fined for getting jacked and juicy in our garage.
Thanks in advance, sorry for the long post.
submitted by weezyFly to legaladvice [link] [comments]

2020.10.23 14:06 Annelly10 Shovel Knight Contest - OFFICIAL RULES

This Competition is in no way sponsored, endorsed or administered by, or associated with Instagram, Facebook, Twitter YouTube or any other social media platform. You are providing your information to Ubisoft EMEA SAS and not to Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube or other social media platform. The information you provide will only be used in accordance with the Ubisoft privacy policy which may be viewed at
  1. ELIGIBILITY: “SHOVEL KNIGHT Contest” (the “Competition”) for “Mighty Quest” (the “Game”) is open to anyone who is at least 16 years old at the time of entry. Employees, officers, and directors of Sponsor and its affiliated companies, subsidiaries, licensees, franchisees, distributors, dealers, sales representatives, advertising and promotion agencies, and any and all other companies associated with the Competition (collectively, the “Competition Entities”), and each of their immediate families (i.e., parents, spouse, siblings, children, grandparents, stepparents, stepchildren and step-siblings, and their respective spouses, and those living in the same household, whether or not related) are not eligible to participate. Subject to all applicable federal, state, provincial, municipal, territorial and local laws, directives and regulations. Void where prohibited.
  2. SPONSOR: Ubisoft EMEA SAS, located at 28 rue Armand Carrel 93100 Montreuil, France
  3. COMPETITION PERIOD: The Competition will begin on October 23, 2020, at 2:00 pm Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and will end on October 28, 2020, at 4:00 pm GMT.
To enter the Competition, please follow the steps below. Specific dates and times subject to change:
Enter the Competition by:
LIMIT: No other methods of entry will be accepted. Only one entry per person will be accepted. Entry in the Competition does not constitute entry into any other promotion, competition. By participating in the Competition, each Entrant, and Entrant’s parent/legal guardian, if Entrant is less than the age of majority in his/her country of primary residence, (collectively “Entrant” “Participant” “Player” or “You”) unconditionally accepts and agrees to comply with and abide by these official rules and the decisions of the Sponsor, whose decisions shall be final and legally binding in all respects.
All entries are subject to verification by the Sponsor. Entries that do not meet the requirements specified below or otherwise do not comply with the Official Rules herein may be disqualified. Any attempted form of entry other than as described herein is void. Sponsor, in accordance with the Competition rules and regulations, will determine in its sole discretion, what constitutes a valid entry.
During the Competition, Ubisoft may, at its own discretion warn, disqualify or ban any Entrant, without prejudice for the Entrant, that notably (without limitation):
On October 28, 2020, Sponsor will randomly draw ten (10) winners, among all valid Entries meeting the Competition requirements.
  1. PRIZES:
Only the Prizes listed below will be awarded in this Competition.
Grand Prize: 50 Event Keys (Mighty Quest in-game currency)
Estimated Retail value (“ERV”): USD $10.00
All taxes on the Prizes are the winners’ sole responsibility. Prizes are not transferable or redeemable for cash. Sponsor reserves the right to make equivalent substitutions as necessary, due to circumstances not under its control. Prizes include shipping and handling costs to the Winners’ residence, where applicable. Odds of winning a Prize depend on the total number of eligible entries received. Winners may not transfer Prize to a third party. The Sponsor will not replace any lost or stolen Prize.
Prizes are provided “as is”. Entrants acknowledge that Competition Entities have neither made nor are in any manner responsible or liable for any warranty, representation or guarantee, express or implied, in fact, or in law, relative to the Prizes.
By participating in the Competition, the winners acknowledge that Competition Entities have not and will not obtain or provide insurance of any kind relating to the Prizes and that each winner will be responsible for obtaining and paying for any life, travel, car, accident, property or other forms of insurance relating to the Prizes.
  1. WINNER NOTIFICATION: Winners will be notified by a post published on the Ubisoft Instagram page, and a direct message on Instagram, on October 28th. Winners will be required to provide their in-game username and ID from the Game, in order to receive the Prize. Sponsor shall have no liability for any potential Prize winner notification that is lost, intercepted or not received by any potential Prize winner for any reason. In the event the Winner is a minor, his or her parent or legal guardian must sign and return the documents described herein as necessary to claim a Prize, on behalf of the winning minor.
In the event of a dispute regarding who submitted an entry, the entry will be deemed submitted by the authorized account holder of the social media account specified in the entry. "Authorized account holder" is defined as the natural person who is assigned to a social media account by an Internet access provider, online service provider, or other organization (e.g., business, educational institution, etc.) that is responsible for assigning social media accounts for the social media page associated with the submitted entry.
Failure to complete and return the documents in the time noted, or if prize notification is undeliverable, will result in disqualification and an alternate potential winner will be selected and notified, time permitting.
  2. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY: Sponsor, the Competition Entities, Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and any third parties associated or affiliated with the development and execution of this Competition are not responsible for problems downloading or uploading of any Competition-related information to or from the web site or for any other technical malfunctions of electronic equipment, computer on-line systems, servers, or providers, computer hardware or software failures, phone lines, failure of any electronic mail entry to be received by Sponsor on account of technical problems, traffic, congestion on the internet or the web site, or any other technical problems related to web site entries including telecommunication miscommunication or failure, and failed, lost, delayed, incomplete, garbled or misdirected communications which may limit an entrant’s ability to participate in this Competition.
  1. PUBLICITY RELEASE/ ASSIGNMENT OF RIGHTS: Acceptance of any Prize constitutes Prize winner’s permission for the Entities and use Prize winner’s entry materials, including video, name, photograph, likeness, voice, biographical information, statements and complete address (collectively, the "Attributes"), for advertising and/or publicity purposes worldwide and in all forms of media now known or hereafter devised, in perpetuity, without further compensation or authorization, and releases the Competition Entities from all claims arising out of the use of such Attributes.
All materials submitted to Sponsor shall become the sole property of Sponsor and will not be returned or acknowledged. As consideration for entering and participating in the Competition, Entrant agrees that Entrant shall relinquish any and all rights to the materials that Entrant submits. Submission of an entry grants the Sponsor and its agents the right to record, copy, publish, use, edit, exhibit, distribute, perform, merchandise, license, sublicense, adapt and/or modify such entry in any way, in any and all media, without limitation and without any compensation to the Entrant. Submission of an entry further constitutes the Entrant's consent to irrevocably assign and transfer to Sponsor any and all rights, title, and interest in the entry, including, without limitation, all copyrights.
  1. ENTRANT’S PERSONAL INFORMATION: Any personal information provided by Entrant to Sponsor will be subject to Ubisoft's privacy policy posted at
Entrant acknowledges that Sponsor will collect and process his/her:
  1. Instagram username to allow him/her to participate in the Competition, and to announce the Winners on Instagram,
  2. In-game username and ID to provide the Winners with their Prize.
The processing of Entrant’s personal data by Sponsor is necessary to perform the contract Entrant has entered with Sponsor by accepting the rules of the Competition.
Entrant’s data will be accessible to:
  1. Instagram’s users,
  2. Sponsor and Sponsor’s Affiliates.
Entrant’s data will:
  1. remain publicly available until Entrant chooses to delete the data from Instagram, The storage of Entrant’s personal data will be subject to Instagram privacy policy, accessible at:
  2. be deleted after the end of the Competition.
Sponsor may transfer Entrant's personal data to non-European countries that ensure an adequate level of protection according to the EU Commission, or within the framework of the standard data protection clauses adopted by the EU Commission (accessible here).
Entrant may exercise his/her rights to access, rectify or erase his/her data, object to or restrict the processing of his/her data, receive his/her information in portable form by making a Data Request here.
For any other questions, Entrant may contact Sponsor Data Protection Officers by making a “Data Information” request here.
After contacting us, if they are not satisfied with the way Sponsor handled their request, Entrant may lodge a complaint with the supervisory authority of their country.
  1. DISQUALIFICATION: Entrant agrees that Entrant shall not submit an Entry that contains (i) disparaging or obscene language, photographs or film (ii) nudity (iii) trademarks, copyrights and/or logos not belonging to Entrant and/or (iv) language, photos or film that is injurious to a third party and/or may damage a third party’s reputation. Entrant acknowledges that Sponsor expressly conditions its acceptance of Entrant’s submission on Entrant’s agreement of the preceding sentence, and if it is discovered that Entrant has violated such agreement, Sponsor reserves the right to disqualify Entrant’s submission.
Entries made on another’s behalf by any other individual or any other entity, including but not limited to commercial Competition subscription notification and/or entering services, will be declared invalid and disqualified for this Competition. Any entries deemed by Sponsor, in its sole discretion, to have been submitted in this manner will be void. In the event a dispute regarding the identity of the individual who actually submitted an entry cannot be resolved to Sponsor’s satisfaction, the affected entry will be deemed ineligible
Sponsor reserves the right in its sole discretion to disqualify any individual who is found to be tampering with the entry process or the operation of the Competition, to be acting in violation of these Official Rules, or to be acting in an unsportsmanlike or disruptive manner, or with the intent to disrupt or undermine the legitimate operation of the Competition, or to annoy, abuse, threaten or harass any other person, and Sponsor reserves the right to seek damages and other remedies from any such person to the fullest extent permitted by law. No incomplete, forged, software-generated or other automated multiple entries will be accepted.
  1. CANCELLATION: Sponsor reserves the right to cancel or modify the Competition if fraud or technical failures destroy the integrity of the Competition as determined by the Sponsor, in its sole discretion, and to award the Prizes based on eligible entries received prior to the cancellation.
  2. DISPUTES: Except where prohibited, Entrant agrees that: (1) any and all disputes, claims and causes of action arising out of or connected with this Competition or any Prize awarded shall be resolved individually, without resort to any form of class action, and that by participating in the Competition, Entrant agrees that Paris, France will be the exclusive forum for any formal dispute resolution; (2) any and all claims, judgments and awards shall be limited to actual out-of-pocket costs incurred, including costs associated with entering this Competition, but in no event attorneys' fees; and (3) unless otherwise prohibited, under no circumstances will Entrant be permitted to obtain awards for, and Entrant hereby waives all rights to claim, indirect, punitive, incidental and consequential damages and any other damages, other than for actual out-of-pocket expenses, and any and all rights to have damages multiplied or otherwise increased. All issues and questions concerning the construction, validity, interpretation and enforceability of these Official Rules, or the rights and obligations of the Entrant and Sponsor in connection with the Competition shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of France, without giving effect to any choice of law or conflict of law rules, which would cause the application of the laws of any jurisdiction other than France. For Residents of Quebec Only: Any litigation respecting the conduct of organizing a publicity contest may be submitted to the Régie des alcools, des courses for a ruling. Any litigation respecting the awarding of a Prize may be submitted to the Régie only for the purpose of helping the parties reach a settlement.
  3. OFFICIAL RULES, WINNERS LIST: A copy of the Official Rules may be downloaded from for the duration of the Competition. A Winners List link will be available at posted during the event. In addition, the Winners List and these Official Rules are also available by sending a stamped (Washington State residents may omit postage), self-addressed envelope marked “Shovel Knight Contest” to Ubisoft EMEA SAS, located at 28 rue Armand Carrel 93100 Montreuil, France.
© 2020 Ubisoft Entertainment. All Rights Reserved. The Mighty Quest for Epic Loot, Ubisoft and the Ubisoft logo are registered or unregistered trademarks of Ubisoft Entertainment in the U.S. and/or other countries.
The use of any Prize manufacturer or venue, name or trademark in connection with any of the Prizes is solely for the purpose of describing such Prize, and is not intended to suggest any affiliation or sponsorship.
The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of these rules shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any other provision. In the event that any provision is determined to be invalid or otherwise unenforceable or illegal, these rules shall otherwise remain in effect and shall be construed in accordance with their terms as if the invalid or illegal provision were not contained herein.
Nothing in these Official Rules shall be deemed to exclude or restrict any of the winner's or the entrant's statutory rights as a consumer.
submitted by Annelly10 to MightyQuestMobile [link] [comments]

2020.10.21 17:10 EternalKoniko JP News: 10/21/20 - Kanagi Izumi (Vampire ver.) Pickup Gacha + "Halloween Castle of Prayer and Mourning" Event

Hello everyone! I'm back again with another Japanese news post. I didn't expect to be doing another one so soon! Since the last post is also an upcoming event that hasn't occurred yet, I will also link it right here
EDIT: With the release of the second wave of news on 10/23, there were several updates regarding maintenance and improving the game. These included updating the visual appeal of the magical girl screen and a bug fix involving Kanagi Izumi (Vampire ver.)'s doppel. I have excluded them from this update because they're not super important.
10/21: [EVENT START] “Halloween Castle of Prayer and Mourning”

10/23: [Notice] Momoko Togame (Nun Sister ver.) Limited-time Pickup Gacha
Thank you for playing Magia Record,
The second of the two gaches related to the new event “Halloween Castle of Prayer and Mourning” will be held from October 30 at 17:00 JST (4:00am EST) until November 9 at 14:59 JST (1:59am EST).
In this gacha, a new magical girl unit named Momoko Togame (Nun Sister ver.) will be released along with two unique memoria, “A Light at the Edge of Town” and “A Hero of Prayer and Conviction”
During this limited-time gacha, you will receive one (1) coordinator coin for every pull you make. You will not receive coordinator coins by pulling from the permanent Premium gacha. Coordinator coins can be exchanged for rewards in the shop. These coins will expire November 16 at 14:59 JST (1:59am EST) if not used. This will NOT share a coordinator coin shop with the Kanagi Izumi (Vampire ver.) gacha.

Momoko Togame (Nun Sister ver.) - 4☆) – Light element – Attack Type – ABBCC

Connect: If There's Two of Us, That's Double the Vitality – Attack UP [VI] & Remove Debuffs & Charge Conservation
Magia: Open Exorcism Buster - Damage All Enemy [V] & Damage Cut from Dark Attribute Attacks & Blast Damage UP (allies/3T)
Spirit Enhancement Skill: Charge UP [III] & Charge Conservation (self/1T)
Spirit Enhancement Ability: Blast MP Gain UP [III]

Memoria: [A Light at the Edge of Town (4☆)](--No image/link yet--)* – Attack UP [IV] & Charge UP [VIII] (self/1T) – Active/Skill

Memoria: [A Hero of Prayer and Conviction (3☆)](--No image/link yet--) – Damage Increase [III] & Damage Cut [III] – Passive/Ability

10/23: [Notice] New Skill: "Charge Conservation"
Thank you for playing Magia Record,
On October 30th at 17:00 JST (4:00am EST), a new skill called "Charge Conservation" will be released alongside Momoko Togame (Nun Sister ver.)
While the skill "No Charge Consumption" is active, the magical girl in question may use Blast or Accele discs without consuming the Charge bonus. While this skill is active, the increased MP gain and damage increase from the Charge bonus will be retained. Therefore, the magical girl will be able to use her charge bonus up to three times during a single turn!
Additional charge bonuses can be added via using Charge discs during the effects of "No Charge Consumption" as well.
For instance, if a magical girl using this skill has a +5 charge bonus, then uses an Accele, Charge, Blast puella combo, the first hit will register as an Accele disc attack boosted by the +5 Charge bonus, the second hit will register as a Charge disc attack and increase the bonus to +6, then the final hit will register as a Blast disc attack boosted by the +6 Charge bonus!
Along with this new skill, Riko Chiaki and Natsuki Utsuho will be available for Spirit Enhancement beginning on October 30th at 17:00 JST (4:00am EST). These magical girls will also receive a featured Gacha!
10/21: [Notice] Kanagi Izumi (Vampire ver.) Limited-time Pickup Gacha
Thank you for playing Magia Record,
The first of two gaches related to the new event “Halloween Castle of Prayer and Mourning” will be held from October 23 at 17:00 JST (4:00am EST) until November 9 at 14:59 JST (1:59am EST).
In this gacha, a new magical girl unit named Kanagi Izumi (Vampire ver.) will be released along with two unique memoria, “Tonight We Will have A Banquet” and “A Sincere Heart”
During this limited-time gacha, you will receive one (1) coordinator coin for every pull you make. You will not receive coordinator coins by pulling from the permanent Premium gacha. Coordinator coins can be exchanged for rewards in the shop. These coins will expire November 16 at 14:59 JST (1:59am EST) if not used.
On this gacha, Mitama Yukumo will also have new Halloween voicelines!

Kanagi Izumi (Vampire ver.) - 4☆) – Dark element – Magia Type – AABCC

Connect: Do You Also Take Life? – Attack UP [VII] & HP Recovery [VII] & Evade
Magia: The Ruler of Blood - Damage All Enemy [VI] & MP Damage (all enemies) & Evade (self/1T) & HP Recovery (self)
Spirit Enhancement Skill: Evade (self/1T) & MP Recovery [II]
Spirit Enhancement Ability: Negate Status Effects x2 (self)

Memoria: Tonight We Will Have a Banquet (4☆) – DMG Increase [IV] & MP Gain UP [IV] – Passive/Ability

Memoria: A Sincere Heart (3☆) – Chance to Follow-up Attack (self/1T) – Active/Skill

10/21: [Notice] “Halloween Castle of Prayer and Mourning” Event
Thank you for playing Magia Record,
From October 23 at 17:00 JST (4:00am EST) until November 9 at 14:59 JST (1:59am EST), we will hold an event titled “Halloween Castle of Prayer and Mourning.” In conjunction with this event, we will be holding a two part limited-time gacha. The first part releases at the beginning of the event and features Kanagi Izumi (Vampire ver.). The second part will release at a later date.
In this event, magical girls including Momoko Togame are invited by an unusual Kanagi Izumi to a mysterious castle. Here they are trapped and seek help!
This event is a “dungeon-style” event. Challenge points (CP) will be consumed to progress through the map which includes battle titles, treasure tiles, healing tiles, and trap tiles! Your upper limit of CP capacity is 5. After CP is consumed, 1 CP will recover within 60 minutes. However, CP regeneration potions can be purchased!
In this event, there are two types of quests: story quests and challenge quests. Play the story quests to reveal the story of Kanagi Izumi (Vampire ver.) and unlock the high difficulty Challenge quests! Challenge Quests give more event currency (sugar skeletons) than Story Quests.
In this event, players will form a main team of 5 magical girls and 2 alternate magical girls for each map. Players can switch out which magical girls are on their main team and which are their alternates via the Team Information screen. Team composition cannot be changed during a map. Therefore, the 7 magical girls (5 main + 2 alternate) you chose must survive to clear the map. Players are limited to healing 5 times per day and each healing action only affects one magical girl. All changes to magical girls’s HP, including Spirit Enhancement, removal or addition of memoria, awakening, etc will be reflected in the magical girl’s status in the event. Support magical girls are not available during this event.
Between each stage on a map, each magical girl’s HP and MP will be carried over to the next battle. Status conditions will not be carried over.
If you fail to clear the map, you will still retain items, curse chips, and EXP earned. However, you will have to start the map from the first stage.
In order to clear a map, you must find a route to the Boss stage. You cannot backtrack to previously cleared stages. In the course of clearing all the maps, players will receive rewards such as gacha tickets, rainbow orbs, and the limited time memoria “Prayers That Connect the Living and Dead” as well as 200 Magia Stones.
The Sugar Skeleton event currency obtained in this event can be exchanged for rewards, such as a new home screen background, a limited-memoria called “Mourning Because You Know the Pain,” and Halloween Costume tickets that can be used to obtain past Halloween costumes for various Magical Girls!
10/21: [Maintenance Notice] October 23, 15:00 – 17:00 JST (2:00am - 4:00am EST)
The following maintenance is planned:
submitted by EternalKoniko to magiarecord [link] [comments]

2020.10.20 12:05 TollhouseFrank Tour de WoT - Tech tree icons for new players

Hello ladies and gents!
This guide is going to be geared towards the new player. It is one thing for us to point you at a Tier 10 and say "this is going to be perfect as your first Tier 10". What I want to do is point out the 'Icons of WoT' that you will find along the way.
These tanks are icons for a myriad of reasons. Unique Mechanics. Real world history. They could be a ton of fun to play. Sometimes, they are just so bad, you need warned ahead of time.
I will be presenting to you each nation, and giving you 3-5 tanks from each that you, as a new player, should try to experience playing - or in some cases - avoid playing at some time in your playing career. I will be using the following criteria in my choices:
  1. Must be at lowest Tier V, and at highest Tier IX. While there are several fun tanks at tier IV and lower, and many iconic Tier X's, tier V to IX is where you will spend the majority of your time in game, so this is where I am concentrating on.
  2. They must currently be in the tech tree. Yes, there are many fun/unique tanks that are now collector tanks in the collector store (you have to have a tank of the same nation/tier unlocked to get access to these tanks). There are even many awesome and fun premiums out there. But for the purposes of this guide, I am going with tech tree only.
  3. I will describe why they are icons and why I believe you should experience playing them or even keeping in garage.
  4. I am human and can't keep my opinions fully out of this. So in that stead, I hope that our community can also chime in and add in their opinions on some iconic tanks that they think I overlooked.
These will be in no particular order. These are just tanks that are iconic. Hopefully, once you play them, you will find out why!
Tank Comments
M4A1 A classic vehicle. The M4 Sherman is one of the most well known tanks in history. In game, it is quite decent in its historical setup with the 76mm. However, this tank comes into its own with the 105mm howitzer mounted. No, you will not always have great games in it. However, it is rare to come away from a match without at least 1 laugh from a massive damage roll when a HE round from your howitzer hits and penetrates your enemy. This is a fun one to keep around for occasional credit grinding or random low/mid tier lols.
T29 While only a test-bed in real life, this tank has become a monster in this game. Even from the earliest days of WoT, this has been very powerful. The turret is nigh impenetrable frontally by anything it can face. It has a good 'stock' configuration with the 90mm from the M6 Heavy the tier before. Fully upgraded, this is one of a handful of tanks in this game that you can single handedly control the match in, even when bottom tier. Good in a beginner's hands. Monstrously overpowering in a good player's hands. This heavy will almost assuredly help you appreciate learning the art of hull-down.
T49 There are some amazing scouts in this game. This is not one of them. There are amazing combat lights in this game. This is not one of them. There is only 1 King of Derp. This is not him. Let me introduce you to the Prince of Derp. This is one of the tanks where it isn't the best at anything other than being a rush of excitement and fun almost every time you take it out in a match. The ability to speed along side of and/or behind an opponent, then tick off 1/2 or more of their health in a single hit? Evaporate enemy light tanks in a single shot? That is what this is about. Far from the best scout. However, easily one of the most fun light tanks you will ever play. Well worth keeping in garage just for the lol-factor alone.
T95 There are many TD's that are technically 'better' vehicles. There are, however, none more intimidating. Affectionately known as "The Doom Turtle" for good reason. You can solo hold a flank against insurmountable odds, because people are afraid to push you. You are nigh invulnerable frontally and will laugh as enemies donk shot after shot into you as you absorb it all without losing a single HP of damage. Yes, it is slow. Yes, it has weaknesses. In relation to WoT, it is still probably the most iconic TD in this game. This is a TD that you will learn to be cautious of, as the first time you make the mistake of wondering in front of one in a match, you will learn a very painful lesson.
M44 Who said I couldn't call an arty iconic? You want to be hated? You want to be cursed at? You want people to tell you how they hope that you and all your family die of aids, cancer, being raped, or name-your-terrible-end? This is the vehicle for you. Great at earning credits. Often called one of the most OP/broken vehicles in the game. Whether you love arty, hate arty, or just don't care either way, you have to admit, this one stands out.

Tank Comments
Rhm.-B. WT There are some really iconic TD's in the German tree; almost all of them for historical reasons. However, for gameplay reasons, this one takes the strudel. A tissue in a hurricane has more armor. What makes this one stand out is the turret and 2 great gun choices. You can't go wrong with either gun, but my personal opinion is to use the 15cm for the lols. It is worth keeping in your garage. It is very powerful in the right circumstances, and it is rare that the 15cm gun won't give you at least 1 smile per match.
Tiger I In a tree full of historically significant tanks, one of them has to stand out. While not well armored compared to its peers, it has one of the best DPM's tier-for-tier in the game. It has an amazing ability to whittle away tons of health before the enemy even realizes it is gone. One of the first tanks people often admit to grinding to because of how famous it was from WW2. Don't expect the armor to save you. If you can keep safe while letting the gun sing - you should have some memorable matches before you move up to the recently buffed big brother Tiger II.
E-50 A tree full of historically significant tanks, and I go with a tank that is at best a paper concept? You can keep your Panther's and Tiger's. I - and many others in the game before you - take a sick and twisted joy out of ramming an enemy to death. One of the 3 or 4 best tanks for ramming in the game, you will find yourself grinning savagely as you slam into the enemy and do 500, 600, 700, even upwards of 1k damage on a lightly armored opponent. It doesn't happen very often, but the opportunity will arise, you will take it, and you will love it.
VK 100.01 P A heavy tank that isn't the Tiger 2, or other historical icon? No. This is a proto-Maus. It has absurd amounts of armor. Properly angled, it can even shrug off Tier 10's like they are nothing - if they are guilty of auto-aiming. It is slow as molasses. The stock gun works surprisingly well, and the top gun is beastly when top tier. When top tier against VI's and VII's, you are practically unkillable. Yes, people want the Maus because of how absurdly armored it is. However, this one is more absurd, considering the amount of armor it has against the opponents it gets to face.
Leopard PT A 'German Accuracy' is a meme in this game. However, this is the tank that defines it. What used to be a tank nobody wanted, WG buffed it and it suddenly became a mobile murder-mobile. Great gun handling, great mobility, all tempered a bit with armor that is about tough as a soft, fluffy pillow. Even after recent nerfs to undo what WG felt to be an overbuff, it is still considered by many to be one of the best, if not the best, mediums at tier 9 in the game.

Tank Comments
KV-2 Average armor. As quick as an one-legged cheetah. As stealthy as an elephant with bad gas. The KV-2 just doesn't care. Top or bottom tier. Open or city map. If there is ever a tank that I believe that every single player in this game should have in their garage, it is the KV-2. Once you fully research this out, you will start to realize why there are so many videos from content creators that feature the tank we lovingly call "The King of Derp". It is nearly impossible to play this tank and be mad. If you ever need a pick-me-up - KV-2 is here for you.
T-34-85 Based on a variation of one of the most famous tanks of WWII, this medium tank will captivate you and have you begging for more. If there was ever a perfect introduction to medium tank play, this is it. Mobility is high. It has armor that can work in the right situations. Gun choices galore. Even better? This leads to many of the most beloved high tier mediums in the game. If you want a medium tank branch to go down first - choose this, and you will likely be 100% satisfied
T-54 From an icon of WWII to an icon of the Cold War. In the beginning of WoT, this was known as the UFO - the netcode was so bad, that this tank appeared to 'teleport' around the battlefield. Now, it is easily one of the most dominant - in a good player's hands - tanks in the entire game. High mobility, good armor, and gun choices that will leave you satisfied. There are many who keep this in garage with a good crew, even after unlocking the Object 140 at tier X. It is absolutely a keeper.
IS-3 In a tree full of memorable and iconic heavies, it is hard to be more memorable than this. Trollish armor. Powerful Gun. Decent mobility. This is a heavy many folks will tell you they enjoyed - and for good reason. This one will likely give you a lot of fond memories as you work your way up to Tier X.
S-51 Another arty? Has Private_Public gone mad? Nay, I say! Nay! After changes to SPG's over the years, this is not the dreaded and fearsome armageddon machine it used to be. It no longer 1-shots even Tier 10's with impunity. However, for many players, this is the first SPG where you cross the 200mm size mark with a gun. It is slow, with terrible gun handling. You play this for one reason only - the splash radius and damage potential can cause grins for you, and many curses flung your way post-match.

Tank Comments
Black Prince The UK tree has some really great and memorable tanks that are great fun to play. This one is an icon for a different reason. It is almost universally agreed upon as one of the worst heavy tanks tier for tier in the game. I personally loved it (then again, I'm daft in the head and love bad tanks). The mobility is bad. The armor only sort of works when top tier. The gun will have you crying many salty tears for how anemic it is. However, it is definitely all worth it, as Tier VIII+ in this branch are all good-to-great.
Conqueror The Centurions are icons for historical reasons, so it is hard to keep them out of this list. This is an icon because of gameplay reasons. Years ago before changes to the tree, this was a rough stock grind. Now, this is one of the easiest stock grinds at Tier IX. Fully upgraded, this heavy is more powerful than many Tier X tanks. It also includes a British mainstay - HESH rounds (HE rounds with high pen) that lets you do nasty things to tanks that have light armor or if you catch them in the side/rear. Take what you have learned about playing hull down and abuse it, here. You will find it pays off as you bounce shot after shot.
ALL UK Lights Tier 5+ I have a soft spot for the Covenanter in my heart. I still find it fun to play. But my goodness, is the rest of the branch made of rotten haggis. Some people will defend the Tier X as being "OK" and fun to play. However, the rest of the line to get there will have you hating yourself and wondering why WG would ever purposely try to ruin an entire tech tree with the stench of a single branch this bad.
Tortoise In a line full of heavily armored TD's with high DPM, this is easily the highlight. Tough enough to brawl up close with heavies. Accurate enough to snipe from range. 2nd highest DPM in the game. After buffs to this TD, it has become a gem that many people come to highly appreciate. While the Badger a tier up is more of the same, it just doesn't quite have the same magic.
Cromwell I would be remiss to leave this off the list. Have you ever heard of the concept "spray and pray"? This tank epitomizes that concept. It has a selection of guns that have such bad soft stats, it can't hit a target while on the move, with the target taped to the end of the gun barrel. The real joy in this tank comes when played in platoons of 3. You can swarm an enemy at close range with high mobility. With 3 guns and a high right of fire, you will be draining enemy HP so fast, they are back to garage before they can blink. Good alone. A monster in a platoon.

Tank Comments
AMX 65T I hated this tank. Everyone else who has played this tank hates it. You will hate it. If there was an award for 'worst tank in the game', this is surely it. This is a heavy tank with no armor, no mobility, and turrets that don't make up for it. It has gun handling that makes you want to gouge your eyes out with spoons made of sandpaper. If this tank had good mobility, it would be fine. If this tank had the armor to back up the poor mobility, it'd be fine. Without either, this is the most putrid tank in this entire tree, and possibly, the entire game. However, the tier IX and X past it are both definitely good.
Lynx 6x6 Until this point, the wheeled lights in this tree haven't been anything of note other than having an awesome anti-scout HE round. This is where you first get access to the high-mobility mode you will come to learn to both love and curse as you play up the tree. This will give you taste of what is to come.
AMX 13 90 When I first obtained this vehicle, it was a Tier VII light. Through the years (and expansion to the trees), it has seen time at tier VIII and now tier IX. It is far from the best scout. However, mid-late game, it is probably one of the most dangerous, as you suddenly become capable of possibly removing multiple tanks from the field in a single clip. In this tank, you are able to quickly turn the tide for your team in a tight match.
AMX 50 100 It is not a great heavy. It has no armor. It is large. It has a very slow clip load time. However, what this tank excels at is teaching you to conserve your HP, and to be careful on your trades. If you play your cards right, you are now one of the most deadly tanks in the game in the late match. With the ability to do 1800 damage in just a few seconds, you can in a single clip remove 2, 3, 4, or more tanks so quickly, that a tight match is suddenly blown wide open. Be cautious at the start of the match, go wild late match. A good tank to learn an appreciation for how powerful autoloaders can be in 'crunch time'.
AMX M4 51 How do you follow up possibly the worst tech tree tank in the game? The WG way - one of the best heavies in the game. Extremely strong frontal armor. 2 good guns that give 2 playstyles - brawling action, or aiming for overmatches on highly angled turret roofs or Swedish TD's. While many do not like the Tier X nearly as much, this heavy proves that the French are the best lovers. It will treat you right every time you take it out for a date.

Tank Comments
Skoda T 25 Pretty quick. Turns about as well as yak with a rocket stuck to it's back. The autoloader, along with the extremely fast reload, make this a great credit grinder in a good player's hands, and a very deadly opponent on the battlefield. Unfortunately, to get to the next good tank in the tree, you have to put up with some terrible times.
TVP VTU Speaking of terrible times, this is it. While the Tier VII is bad in its own right, this one is takes the bad to a new level. While I liked it (I tend to like 'bad tanks' as it is fun for me to find something positive about them), I'm the oddball here. Take the Tier VI premium Skoda T40. Stick it at Tier VIII with a slightly better gun. That is all you need to know.
Skoda T50 Sometimes, the grind is bad and there is never a payoff. In this case, there is a massive pot of gold at the end of the rainbow. While buffs to other medium tanks have curtailed enthusiasm for this medium tank some, it is still considered one of the most powerful mediums in the game. It is highly mobile, has very quick damage burst with its autoloader, and quickly reloads its clip, allowing you to keep up the pressure. If you are willing to put up with tier VII and VIII being terrible, then your payoff is 100% worth it.

Tank Comments
O-I There is a King of Derp. There is a Prince of Derp. This is the cheap Japanese Imitation Derp. It is massive. It is slow. It is heavily armored. Just like the KV-2, it just doesn't care what match it is in. Also, you will likely be using the same 15cm howitzer up to Tier VIII, so get used to it. You also will learn to get used to seeing your hit-log in match be full of premium rounds, as people just do not bother searching for your weak spots.
Chi-Ri A medium tank larger than many heavy tanks in the game. Decent mobility. Armor that couldn't stop a butterfly from penetrating if it lands too hard. Despite all of this, many who play it fall strangely in love with it. It has one of the more unique guns in the game: a 3 shot autoloader that does low damage, but that loads extremely quickly. I personally never understood the thrill, but many swear by it. Maybe you too, will one day play this tank and fall in love.
Type 4 Heavy Armor that works until it doesn't. That is often the kindest thing people say about this heavy tank. If you are top tier against Tier VII's and VIII's, you are probably going to have a good time. Against Tier IX and Tier X? You are an XP Piñata. More frustrating than fun to play. However, those rare good games may just keep you coming back for more.

Tank Comments
WZ-132 In a game where 'traditional' light tanks are falling by the wayside, this one still holds its own. A better medium tank than the equal tier medium of the same tree. When the light tanks got an overall general nerf, this one was barely touched. It is a good light tank. While you may never go past it in the branch, you will probably appreciate it for what it is capable of. One of the more powerful combat lights in the game.
WZ-111 1-4 People tend to ignore the Chinese tree because of 'copycat syndrome'. I believe that is a mistake. This is one of my personal favorite heavies in the game, and a favorite to many who play it. Mobile, hard hitting, and a decent turret. A heavy that you can play like a medium, and out-slug those same mediums you raced to face. It is a bit of a grind to get there, but the 130mm gun on this heavy turns you into a deadly anti-medium.
T-34-2 In a tree of forgettable tanks, this one gives the AMX 65T of the French tree a run for its money as worst tank in the game. On paper, it is attractive. It is mobile. It has decent armor and a great turret. It has good guns with a lot of alpha damage. In reality once you play it, it all falls apart. This is one of the worst grinds in the game. With upcoming buffs to this branch, things might change.

Tank Comments
25TP Fully upgraded, this should be a good tank. It is mobile and has a good gun for the Tier. This problem is, to get there, you have to put up with one of the worst stock grinds in the game. If you are a new player, you won't have a bank of free xp built up to help unlock modules. One of the most frustrating grinds in the game, with a payoff being an OK, but not great, tank.
B.U.G.I. This is a tank that shouldn't work. It is awkward and on paper, just doesn't look good. In practice, this is one of the more fun tanks you can play in this game. With a choice of a normal gun (with high alpha for a medium of the tier) or a howitzer for derp action - you will find a way to play it that works for you. While the rest of the mediums are considered 'blah' aside from the Tier X, this one might just find a new home in your garage.
50TP Another one that on paper, just doesn't look exciting. However, fully researched, this is a hidden gem. Heck, Tier VIII and up on this branch are all hidden gems that people overlook because of the horrible grind to get here. The armor won't save often. However, when it does work, it works amazingly well. The top gun allows you to Hulk Smash enemies. Definitely worth the grind. The 60TP that follows has quickly become my personal favorite Tier X heavy tank.

Tank Comments
UDES 03 Want to be a Norse Ninja? Want to be able to drive backwards faster than most tanks in the game can drive forwards? Want a gun so good, you almost never have to fire premium ammo, even at tanks 2 tiers higher? Want a unique mechanic that only a handful of other tanks in the game have? This TD is for you. While a MBT in real life, in game, this tank acts more like a tank destroyer (thus the designation as such). Both tanks following it are improvements on this vehicle. However, first loves stick with you as more memorable than your 2nd and 3rd loves.
Emil II Want to be a heavy tank that is smaller than some light tanks in the game? Oh, want to add in invincible frontal turret armor, 10+ degrees of gun depression, and an autoloader to it? Look no further. While not a great heavy tank in its own right, when you get the chance to play hull down, you go from average to becoming Thor himself.
IKV 103 At the same time both the best and worst tier 5 TD in the game. When it works, it works. However, when it doesn't, oh boy does it not. It is also unique in that the best gun on it only fires HEAT. No AP. No HE. Only HEAT. If you can make it work and learn to aim for solid armor and not spaced armor, then the top gun lets you do silly things.

Tank Comments
P.43 This is a medium tank that acts like a heavy. It brawls like a heavy. It hits hard like a heavy. It is as slow as a heavy. While not a great tank, as Shrek told Donkey "That'll do."
P.43 ter Tier VII is usually pretty awkward. This tank is no different. However, the moment you unlock the top engine and mount it, you go from a middle-of-the-road medium to a hard hitting and very mobile medium. It may not be the best medium in the game, but it surely is up there for how much a simple tech upgrade can change the way you play/view a tank.
P.44 Pantera Auto-reloader mechanic. That is all. Wait, you want me to say more? Seriously, the auto-reloading mechanic puts regular auto loaders to shame. You can play as a single shot medium and maintain DPM. You can dump your clip for a quick burst of damage. Fully upgraded, this medium is mobile, extremely versatile, and secretly, a good rammer. Even if you go no further in this tree, you will probably love this tank - especially if you like regular autoloaders.
submitted by TollhouseFrank to WorldofTanks [link] [comments]

2020.10.20 00:21 swosho [PS2] Echo Night: Beyond UNDUB

Title ID: SLES53414 Size: 980 MB / 603 MB archived DL:
Link: Key: !pWvsHjNoqZQSDD7jZJkJ_CAUNJ1cjTgcYS4Igbt6r-g 
First things first: Yes, NTSC 60Hz support is there.
So I stumbled upon a Russian fan-translated and undubbed version of the game – the undub was a bit incomplete but the game's archive was expanded nicely, which made it a breeze to restore the English language back and re-inject the Japanese dub, while also fixing every problematic voice clip along the way via some good ol' relinking and a little bit of silence trimming. Thanks to the ViT Company guys for their fan-translation and preliminary undub that made this undub a relatively easy one to make.
I gutted all the bloat from the iso along with the 50Hz versions of intro and ending FMVs, so be sure to start the game in a 60Hz mode. Also, don't forget to use an up-to-date widescreen code, since the older widescreen codes for the European version were glitchy.
Regarding obtaining the link: Scan the linked QR code -> decode the base64 string -> ... -> [] + [link] + [key] PM me if you're having trouble with the link.
submitted by swosho to UNDUB [link] [comments]

2020.10.19 12:00 JacksonWarrior This Week in Power Metal Releases (10/18 - 10/24)

This Week in Power Metal Releases (10/18 - 10/24)
Power Metal:
Related Genres:
JacksonWarrior's Corgi and Atmoblack pitstop:
I played the KFC dating sim last week and the teacher is a corg. I also failed to get those digits from Col Sanders
What you may have missed last week...

Recommendations of the Week


Black Fate will appeal to fans of Kamelot, Conception, and Sunburst. If you're not yet familiar, vocalist Vasilis Georgiou purposefully and successfully emulates the vocal style of Roy Khan. The music on offer is symphonic-tinged, mid-paced metal that admittedly doesn't do much to excite me, but this is one of those instances where the vocals make it worthwhile.


Mors Principium Est has a solid track here. Despite being Melodic Death, I found it quite enjoyable. Also, that walking skeleton in the video makes it all worthwhile. Even without, it's a good track.
Soul Secret does give me Dream Theater vibes, but the vocals here feel weak when trying to sing over the heavier parts of the song. Otherwise, the instrumentation is entertaining but again, big bang of Dream Theater off of them, so if that's you're cup of tea, this may be a pass. Mild Recommendation.


Ice War is the punkier kind of speed metal, it's alright.
Soul Secret gets a light rec from me as it gives off big Dream Theater vibes but without all the mad shredding of Petrucci, which is my favourite part of Dream Theater.


Mors Principium Est are one of the few good (great, even) Melodeath bands, and this album is shaping up to continue the trend.
I'm not sure how much I liked Adamantis, but I think I liked it enough to recommend it. Has a bit of a less polished early 2000s kind of sound, which is up my alley. I think it could be a grower.
submitted by JacksonWarrior to PowerMetal [link] [comments]

2020.10.18 22:54 LauraVi 💎RC September Update Survey: the results.💎

💎RC September Update Survey: the results.💎
Thanks to everyone who took the time to respond to our Reddit Community Survey! Let's find out what we all liked/disliked about the latest RC update.
💎First of all, which story was the most read this month? HS was the most read story in the app (insert surprised Pikachu face here) while the new-story-curiosity effect vaned for LOS, making its readership drop. LOW also suffered a surprise drop (hashtag underrated), and curiosity for SBR's new season meant slightly more readers for our dancing crew.
-- 97.2% of the respondents read Heaven's Secret (up from last month's 96%)
-- 94% read Dracula: a Love Story (on par with last month's 93.9%)
-- 93% read Chasing You (on par with last month's 92.8%)
-- 90% read Love from Outer Space (down from last month's 94.2%)
-- 87.6% read Legend of the Willow (down from last month's 90.3%)
-- 85.1% read Seduced by the Rhythm. (up from last month's 82.8%)
💎How popular was each update? We asked you to rate the new chapters giving a score between 1 and 5, where 1= I did not like it, 5= I loved it. Despite receiving the exact same score as last month, LOW ranked as second most liked update - although it's mostly because almost everything else dropped in rating.
-- Heaven's Secret: 4.4 (same score as last month, remains in first place)
-- Legend of the Willow: 4.2 (same score as last month, up from tied-third to second)
-- Dracula: a love story: 4.0 (slightly down from 4.3, drops from second to third)
-- Love from Outer Space: 3.4 (down from 3.9, stable in fourth)
-- Chasing You: 3.3 (big drop from 4.2, goes from tied-third to fifth)
-- Seduced by the rhythm: 2.9 (down from 3.4, stable in sixth)
.💎But here's the juicy stuff: which characters had the best and worst scenes in this update?

.⚠️Warning: plot spoilers for the September update are contained in this post from this point on. ⚠️

.💎The top 10 overall BEST scenes go to:
(1) Lucifer (HS) - 69.7% - At this point, having Lucifer taking part in any kind of poll is like watching Phelps swimming at the Olympics. You know he's gonna win, so you might as well take advantage of the lack of lines at the food stands and go get a pretzel or something. Of course everyone liked the sexy times in jail, despite the perplexing logistics. Of course everyone felt sorry when he got tied up like a stuffed chicken and nearly died at the hands of papa-dearest. And of course his heroics in battle and sad tree-burning predicament had us all in a tizzy. Moving on.
(2) Kazu (LOW) - 53.8% - Absence makes the heart grow fonder and after a few episodes without our favourite ninja hottie, his return left us all with butterflies in our stomach and badly brewed tea in our hands. They say that you can tell a man by the company he keeps, but not even Kazu's dubious association with random guy Satoshi has been able to put a damper on our love for him. Next time come alone, though? Hashtag new-fox-who-dis, hashtag you-could-have-brought-takao, hashtag i-am-not-cold-but-go-on.
(3) Present-day Vlad (DLS) - 43.2% - Vlad baby, what's going on with you? Do you need a hug? Oh, right, never mind. Our favourite sexy psychopath defied whatever curse is holding him back to ravish MC with all his might, but paid the price in full, and oh boy, that looked painful. Despite his rage-fuelled attack on an helpless dessert table, most of us forgave him the moment he felt us up with his brilliant mind at a random cat event. Hashtag party-like-its-1446.
(4) Masamune (LOW) - 33.3% - The first series of LOW went out with a bang (not literally) and despite a late start, the Ronin's charming personality, gorgeous face and mysterious splish-sploshing sounds from the bathroom made him shoot up the rankings at hypersonic speed. Of course we all needed help with our evening ablutions, and of course now our mind is right in the gutter where it belongs. Hashtag soap-emoji-eggplant-emoji-wink-emoji.
(5) Young Vlad (DLS) - 31.8% - This update was a clear Vladfest, with plenty of content featuring our favourite yet-unconfirmed-vampire both in the past and the present. Lale's sudden sexual awakening in the arms of a young dancing Vlad was a moment for the books - all despite the fact that he managed to outshine his previous Emo fringe with an even more questionable hairdo.
(6) Leo (DLS) - 31.3% - From his genuine and loving attention to the best ugly cat in the world, to sensuous dancing and general garden chillaxing, Leo is slowly-but-surely gaining more and more fans every update. But let's be honest, he could have been shovelling deer manure for the whole update and we would have still given him a ton of votes because, seriously, that black suit? Hashtag chefs-kiss.
(7) Fyr (HS) tied with the geography teacher (LOS) at 30.6%. The most shocking result of this survey must be that the most loved pet sidekick in the app and its emotionally gut-wrenching war scenes got the same amount of votes as a disillusioned guy in a Monday morning mood. And the fact that a random side character's lack of will to live spoke to all of us so much says something about the state of the world today, ngl. How long until someone campaigns to make this husk of a man into a LI? Hashtag dear-lord-no, hashtag id-rather-date-tony.
(8) Nosferatu, his black-cat friend and his lady relative (DLS) - 30.1% - We are all crazy cat people on this blessed day! Forget sexy times, forget adventure, drama or romance: all we want from RC is a cat in a dress! From cemetery escapades to a grumpy pageant queen, we clearly could not get enough of our favourite felines. Hashtag every-day-is-caturday, hashtag where-is-berdus-at-tho.
(9) Alex (CY) tied with Malbonte (HS) at 28.5%. Considering Alex was hardly in this update at all, we think most people voted for him more by default than because of actual merit. But he did drop the G(irlfriend) word for some of us, and still looked like a snack even in a way too tattered pyjamas (did he sleep in a bramble bush or something?), so we'll allow it. And what can we say about Malbonte? He has just appeared in his true form but might already be out to swipe Lucifer's crown for favourite bad boy in the app. Hashtag imma-steal-your-girls.
(10) Aslan (DLS) - 28.3% - RC's main supernatural story (that is turning slightly creepier than expected lately, ngl) steals the show once again grabbing another slot in the best scenes rankings. Aslan's military prowess and luscious long locks had us all craving for more, because let's face it, guys with long hair are hot, and even more if you are a 15th-century hormonal teen. Hashtag good-hair-dont-care.
💎And the top 10 overall WORST scenes go to:
(1) Tony (SBR) - 43.8% - Yellow-wearing Tony has managed to keep hold of his ugly crown, and considering he's not the one who had an evil plan to murder half of heaven and hell this update, that's a pretty big feat. Kissing random women at a wedding can only be acceptable if you are very drunk and very single, and considering he was neither, we all voted for him to still top the baddies list.
(2) Molly (SBR) - 22% - The Molly debate is still going strong. Is the second most despised teenager in RC's history way too hated for her crimes? Are the two sisters just deserving of each other's pettiness? Is the sky blue? We will never know. Fact is, Tony's dastardliness is rubbing off on his sweetheart, so let's hope she'll drop him like a hot potato sooner rather than later. Hashtag baby-he-aint-worth-it.
(3) Fencio (HS) - 21.4% - What has a villain got to do to top the naughty rankings? Murdering three people, starting a war and resuscitating an ancient evil ain't it, apparently, since ol' Fencio here just landed himself a bronze. Maybe in the next update he'll manage a little more slaughter, horror and torment and get himself a better score. Hashtag my-fireplace-is-talking-to-me, hashtag i-hate-everyone-but-my-son, hashtag delete-this-immediately.
(4) Eve (CY) - 18.8% - We are honestly not sure what Eve did in this update to deserve such a bad rep, but maybe her karaoke skills were lacking? Or maybe she hasn't been forgiven yet for her bathroom-nipple-twisting shenanigans? Fact is, she scored higher than the literal Lord of Hell so we clearly missed something here. Hashtag mafia-bae.
(5) The paranoid neighbour (LOS) - 18% - We mods are mostly working from home these days, wearing our nightgown, slippers and tinfoil hat 24/7, so we feel personally attacked by this community's harsh judgement of this upstanding fella, who, shall we point out, had clearly nailed his assessment of the dangerous criminals who moved next door to his house. Hashtag i-am-calling-the-police, hashtag i-am-not-crazy-you-are-crazy, hashtag neighbourhood-watch-your-back.
(6) Present-day Vlad (DLS) - 17.7% - Clearly not everyone was charmed by the touch-me-touch-me-not shtick from our tormented Romanian castle-owner. A significant part of this community was not having any of it and thought that Vlad's random outburst of rage and destruction and slight emotional manipulation of MC were simply not on, landing him a spot in the baddies corner. Hashtag please-dont-fight-in-the-comments.
(7) Satan (HS) - 17.4% - The Lord of Hell cemented his reputation as worst-dad-ever when he nearly offed his own son without thinking about it twice. Luckily our MC turned out to be some sort of superpowered goddess herself, so she lamped him good and, for some players, got rid of the problem once and for all. Hashtag sorry-not-sorry, hashtag et-tu-dad, hashtag it-should-have-been-rebecca.
(8) Rebecca (HS) - 17.1% - Not even a full facelift changed the opinion of our community on this blonde-haired boss babe. She used and abused poor Fencio (who gets zero sympathy from us, but still), she all but told her daughter to go eat a cactus, she has shown no real feelings for anything or anyone apart from being a power-hungry shark... you know what, Becky, once again you deserve your spot on the naughty list.
(9) Jacob (LOS) - 16.8% - This guarded grump continues to prove unpopular in this community, as his lack of soft corners is not welcomed by the readers. At this point there's not much anyone can do to change the mind of the majority, but hopefully as the story progresses we'll see more pleasant sides of him. Hashtag whatever.
(10) Nosferatu, his black-cat friend and his lady relative (DLS) - 16.5% - To all those who voted for the cat gang as worst scenes of the update: do you also hate rainbows, unicorns and chocolate cake? DLS proves once again to be the most divisive story, since both one of its main LIs and main pet have landed themselves in hot water. Hashtag dracula-drama.
.💎And here are all the results, book by book:

.Seduced by the rhythm

.Brandon's frequent flier, billionaire, FBI shenanigans might have not gotten him a spot in the top 10, but at least he was the best of the bunch in SBR. Although, can we just very quickly point out that in the "best scenes" rankings, Tony got the exact same number of votes as Jo&Chris tear-jerking wedding? Hashtag just-saying.

Chasing You

In the best scenes, Ellia is coming for Alex's crown fast! But it's also interesting to see how Alex, despite being the only CY character to make the overall best top-10, still ties with The Stranger when it comes to worst scenes. Hashtag you-better-watch-out.

Heaven's Secret

That One Hot Archdemon narrowly missed out on the overall best top-10 and Fyr is really a very good dragon. Why Andy has earned such a high spot in the worst scenes is something we don't quite understand (higher than Malbonte who's the literal bad guy here?!) and it's clear how we were all touched, in either a positive or negative way, by Sammy's heartbreaking flashback. Hashtag i-am-not-crying-you-are-crying.

Legend of the willow

That Random Guy Satoshi No One Remembers tops the worst scenes for LOW, even ahead of the actual supernatural evil entity that is currently murdering people by torturing them in super gross ways. Maybe do not randomly grab a sleeping girl next time? Hashtag mei-should-have-bitten-harder, hashtag keep-your-ninja-hands-where-i-can-see-them, hashtag win-stupid-prizes.

Dracula: a love story

Present-day Vlad tops both the best and worst rankings, as mentioned already above. It's also a real shame that Sandra is not getting more love, but to be honest we hardly saw her at all in this update, so let's hope she is going to have more screen-time in future chapters. Hashtag sandra-deserves-better.

Love from outer space

We already highlighted the unexpected popularity of the geography teacher, but also worth of note are Agent Doe and Agent Wolf, who have just appeared and are already very popular. Hashtag mulder-and-scully-who.
And also ...
💎Is Tony from SBR still the worst? Most of us (72.2%) really want to yeet Tony and his mustard suit into a volcano, but a decent minority - that adds up to 27.8% - is either not hating him that much, or full-on loving him. Hashtag leave-tony-alone.
💎Who did you choose for Molly to "notice" in SBR? Most people could not care less, frankly, with 40.9% of the respondents not picking anyone because clearly Molly can make her own bad romantic decisions without her sister's help. Of those who picked a suitor, Henry was the most popular choice at 27.2%, followed by Zach at 17.9% and Andy at 14%.
.💎Who did you pick for drunken karaoke in CY? Ellia was the clear favourite for on-stage shenanigans, with 45.3% of the community picking him for sing and make out. The 37.9% of us decided to sing alone, and 16.8% of the respondents picked Eve.
.💎Did you kiss Christopher at the fair in CY? Most of us said no, but a good minority chose to lock lips with the redhead, consequences be damned!
💎Which side did you take in the HS war? You would think that with all the love for Lucifer on this sub, the demon side would be the most popular... but surprisingly enough, the angel side won, although the balanced approach is very close behind.
💎Were you surprised by the identity of MC's killer and all around main baddie in HS? Most of us had somewhat of an idea of what was going on, but the plot twist was still a doozy for a lot of people.
💎What did you think of the new faces for Rebecca and Andy in HS? Very split results here with a tied first place between those who liked the new redesign and those who did not really care, with those who hated it coming in third. Rebecca's new look seems to have been better received than Andy's.
💎How do you feel, in general, about characters being redesigned half way through a series or after a series is completed? The majority of the respondents (44.6%) said they don't like it, because they get attached to the characters' faces even if they are not perfect. 30.6% said that they don't mind either way, and 24.7% said that they like it because it is often an improvement.
.💎Did Masamune from LOW steal your heart (and possibly your bath water) this update? Despite the Ronin's best efforts, the overwhelming majority of this community still picked Kazu.
💎What did you think of the new haircuts for 1446 Vlad and Aslan in DLS? Aslan's seems to be more popular than Vlad's but both haircuts seems to have been fairly well received overall.
💎Noe YEA or Noe NAY in DLS? New arrival Noe has a decent amount of fans already, even if they are the minority.
💎Are you Mehmed's "sweet lokum" in DLS? The mod team will abstain from commenting on this topic due to an internal conflict of interest. 👀👀👀
💎Did you manage to get the "Friendship banner" with Nosferatu in DLS? We all love cats here, did we mention this?
💎Which earth-appropriate shape did you pick for Beast in LOS? Our love for felines in this update is also confirmed by the fact that the majority of us decided to have Beast be a cat - but maybe also because that dog looked hella weird, ngl. 53.6% chose the normal cat shape, 26.4% went with the purple premium cat, 13.3% chose the normal dog, and 6.7% picked the purple premium dog.
.💎On whose lap you sat in LOS? The community has spoken: 56.1% thinks that Ray, the alien prince, is the comfiest chair in town, sorry Todd. The "Radiohand" fan comes second, although at quite a distance with 15.6%, followed by Jacob at 9.4% and Ursula the alien bodyguard with 4.4%. Of the 14.4% who would have chosen to sit on Miranda's lap but couldn't because she was driving, the results are split: 7.5% picked the prince instead, 3.3% rage quit altogether (sorry, we hope you reconsider!), 2.2% picked the bodyguard, 0.8% chose Todd and 0.6% went for Jacob.
💎We also asked about diamonds: how much did you spend on this update? It looks like our spending habits have remained pretty much consistent.
-- 35% spent more than 150, less than 300 diamonds. (up from last month's 30.1%)
-- 25.6% spent more than 300, less than 500 diamonds. (almost identical to last month's 25.7%)
-- 23.1% spent more than 500 diamonds. (up from last month's 21%)
-- 13.5% spent more than 50, less than 150 diamonds. (down from last month's 18.1%)
-- 2.8% spent less than 50 diamonds. (down from last month's 5.1%)
.💎Next up: teacups. The majority of us (74.5%) decided to be patient and read the chapters over a few days, while 25.5% smashed that buy-tea button to binge read - only slightly down from last month, when 29.7% of us had taken out the plastic.
.💎We asked if you used the wiki walkthroughs to help you with your stats, and looks like we were all feeling slightly more adventurous this month, with only the 65.8% saying yes (compared to the 70.3% of the previous update), while 31.8% chose to go in blind and spoiler-free (compared to last month's 29.7%). And for the 2.5% who did not know walkthroughs even existed, here is a link to our very own Reddit-made Wiki with all the answers your heart is searching for.
.💎And last but not least, thank you to the 98% of you who were looking forward to reading this post, we love you! And to the 2% who wished us to always lose our soup spoon into the bowl, joke's on you: our lifestyle is extremely unhealthy and we need no spoons when stuffing our face with two-day-old pizza!
.That's all folks... until next time!
.💎Your friendly neighbourhood mod team💎
.💎 u/LauraVi 💎 u/swankytutu 💎 u/directormmn
submitted by LauraVi to RomanceClub [link] [comments]

2020.10.18 21:47 bythissignconquer Okishio Theorem? Cringe!

Andrew Kliman
I. Introduction
Karl Marx (1973:748) considered the law of the tendential fall in the profit rate (LTFPR) to be "in every respect the most important law in modern political economy, and the most essential for understanding the most difficult relations." However, the Okishio theorem (Okishio 1961) is generally thought to have refuted this law on logical grounds, in a manner "so devastating that it deprives all arguments (pro and contra) ... of their relevance" (Parijs 1980:9). In other words, it is commonly accepted that Okishio's and subsequent versions of the theorem have shown it to be impossible for profit-maximizing capitalists to adopt labor-saving innovations that cause the equilibrium (uniform) rate of profit to fall.
Much of the subsequent literature has shown, not surprisingly, that by altering one of the theorem's premises, one can derive a fall in the profit rate. If the theorem were true, this would indeed be the only way to derive a falling profit rate. And because the theorem is widely accepted as true, the counter-demonstrations put forward by proponents of the "temporal single-system" interpretation of Marx's value theory (Ernst 1982; Kliman 1988, 1996; Freeman 1996) are - when they are acknowledged at all - commonly regarded as alternative "models" which, like the rest of the literature, alter some premise of the theorem in order to arrive at different results.1
The task of the present paper is to show that, on the contrary,
the Okishio theorem has not been proven;
the TSS counter-demonstrations are genuine refutations, negating the conclusions of the theorem without altering any of its stated premises; and
when the theorem's actual results are stated in a valid manner, they do no damage to the logic of Marx's LTFPR.
My claim, it should be noted, is not that the theorem suffers from a mathematical error. The relevant matrix algebra theorem of Perron and Frobenius, upon which the Okishio theorem is based, is true. Rather, the problem is a disjunction between the actual implication of the mathematics and the economic conclusions which proponents of the Okishio theorem draw from it, namely that if a uniform rate of profit is re-established after a cost-reducing technical change, this profit rate cannot be lower than the initial one. To see this, it will help first to review the theorem briefly.
II. The Okishio Theorem
Because I have claimed that the TSS critiques negate the conclusion of the Okishio theorem without altering any of its premises, it is important to identify which features of the theorem are premises and which are conclusions.
No existing version of the theorem fully spells this out, but I believe the following is faithful to the intentions of the theorem's proponents. The theorem begins from the following premises:
an n-industry capitalist economy
single-product industries only
no nonproduced means of production other than labor are used
the real wage rate is equalized and constant
and an initial state of the economy is considered, in which
initial unit prices are stationary (input and output prices are equal),
the profit rate is equalized across industries.
The next premise, in the no-fixed-capital case,[2] is that
a new technique will be adopted if and only if it reduces cost per unit of output, when costs are evaluated at current prices,
and the final premise is that
the profit rate is re-equalized after the adoption of such a new technique.
From these eight premises, proponents of the Okishio theorem use the Perron-Frobenius theorem to draw the following conclusion: the post-innovation profit rate cannot be lower than the initial one, and must be greater than the initial one if the technical innovation occurs in a "basic" industry.
III. The Missing Proof
Let us use r to denote the initial profit rate, and r* to denote that profit rate which proponents of the theorem call the post-innovation profit rate. It is indeed true that r* cannot be lower than r, and that it must be greater than r if the technical change has occurred in a "basic" industry. This much is implied by the Perron-Frobenius theorem. Yet it is insufficient to support the conclusion above. How do we know that r* will be the economy's actual post-innovation uniform profit rate?
The typical answer to this question, and the one which presumably underlies the belief that the Okishio theorem has been proven, is that technical and real wage coefficients, together with the stipulation that the profit rate is equalized across sectors, suffice to determine a unique rate of return on capital advanced. Thus, r* is repeatedly referred to as "the general rate of profit" by Okishio (1961: 90, 93, 99, emphasis added) and as "the equilibrium" profit rate by Roemer (1978:153, 154, emphasis added), implying that if profit rates are equalized across sectors, the level of the uniform profit rate is uniquely determined by physical coefficients. And since premise (viii) stipulates that profit rates are indeed equalized after the technical innovation, then supposedly r* must be the post-innovation profit rate.
Yet, contrary to the apparent belief of the proponents of the Okishio theorem (and most readers of Dmitriev and Sraffa), it is simply not true that the magnitude of the uniform profit rate is uniquely determined by physical input/output coefficients. To demonstrate this crucial point, let us turn to the example in which Sraffa (1960:7) supposedly proves that the uniform profit rate is uniquely determined. He posits the following input/output relations:
280qr. wheat + 12 t. iron -> 575 qr. wheat
120qr. wheat + 8 t. iron -> 20 t. iron
and immediately concludes:
The exchange-ratio which enables the advances [on the left-hand sides] to be replaced and the profits to be distributed to both industries in proportion to their advances [so that the rate of return on capital advanced is equalized] is 15 qr. of wheat for 1 t. of iron; and the corresponding rate of profits in each industry is 25%.
To obtain 15:1 as the unique exchange ratio, Sraffa implicitly assumes that the exchange ratio between wheat and iron at the time of input is equal to the exchange ratio at the time of output. This will not necessarily be the case, but even if it is, the uniform profit rate is not uniquely determined by the data above, as we shall see presently.
Letting Pwt and Pit be the input prices, and Pwt+1 and Pit+1 be the output prices, of wheat and iron, respectively, Sraffa's exchange ratio implies that Pit = 15 Pwt and that Pit+1 = 15 Pwt+1. The rate of return on capital advanced in the wheat sector is therefore
(575 Pwt+1)/(280 Pwt + 12 Pit) - 1 = (575 Pwt+1)/(280 Pwt + 180 Pwt) - 1
= 1.25(Pwt+1/Pwt) - 1
and the rate of return on capital advanced in the iron sector is
(20 Pit+1)/(120 Pwt + 8 Pit) - 1 = (300 Pwt+1)/(120 Pwt + 120 Pwt) - 1 = 1.25(Pwt+1/Pwt) - 1.
The constant exchange ratio of 15:1 thus guarantees that the two rates of profit are equal. Yet the level of the equilibrium profit rate is still not determined. It depends as well on the ratio of the output to the input price of wheat, and it can vary, theoretically, from -100% to + ()()
Hence, if we imagine this to be the post-innovation profit rate, it can in principle always be lower than the pre-innovation rate, if Pwt+1/Pwt is sufficiently small. If, for instance, the pre-innovation rate was 20%, the post-innovation rate will be lower if Pwt+1/Pwt < 0.96.
In general, then, the magnitude of profit rates, even the magnitude of profit rates that are constrained to be equal, depend on the relationship between output and input prices. The Okishio theorem's r* is therefore simply one particular post-innovation profit rate among an infinite number of possible uniform rates, a rate that corresponds to one particular set of input and output prices. Specifically, r* is that particular uniform profit rate which corresponds to the case in which post-innovation input and output prices are equal. Not only does the establishment of r* as the profit rate require that relative input prices equal relative output prices - that was the case in the example above, and it was shown that this stipulation was insufficient to fix the level of the profit rate - but the absolute prices of commodities must be equal as inputs and as outputs. In other words, it is only by implicitly constraining the output price of wheat to equal its input price (and thereby similarly making the ratio of the output and input prices of iron equal unity) that Sraffa obtains 25% as the unique rate of return on capital advanced, and that proponents of the Okishio theorem obtain r* as the post-innovation profit rate.
Our original question -- how do we know that r* will be the economy's actual post-innovation uniform profit rate? -- can thus be restated as: how do we know that the absolute magnitudes of post-innovation input and output prices will be equal? Unless they are equal, r* will not be the actual post-innovation profit rate, even if profit rates are equalized. Authors who have attempted to prove the Okishio theorem show little recognition of this difficulty. The equality of post-innovation input and output prices is never stated explicitly as a premise of the theorem, nor is it ever proven within the theorem. But since it is absolutely necessary to the theorem's conclusion, the theorem remains unproved.
The problem appears to be that the proponents of the Okishio theorem, along with almost all the post-Sraffa literature, seem simply to have taken for granted that input and output prices must be equal if profit rates are to be equalized. In the passage quoted above, Sraffa (1960:7, emphasis added) speaks of "The exchange-ratio" which permits a uniform rate of return on capital advanced. Actually, exchange ratios of inputs and outputs can differ even with a uniform rate of return; yet, as we have seen, even if they are the same, the level of the rate of return depends on absolute prices, not only relative prices (exchange ratios).
In one of his presentations of the Okishio theorem, Roemer (1978) did evince some awareness that the validity of the theorem depends on the adjustment of post-innovation prices to a stationary state. Employing a two-sector example with the technical change having taken place in sector 1, he wrote the profit rate will immediately rise in sector 1. This will encourage more firms to enter sector 1 from sector 2; prices will be cut in competition and eventually a new equilibrium tableau will emerge [... so that] cost-reducing technical innovations give rise, eventually, to a rise in the equilibrium rate of profit in a competitive situation (Roemer 1978:154, emphases added).
This passage shows clearly that Roemer did not regard the establishment of a stationary post-innovation price vector as a premise of the theorem, but rather as a result of a dynamic adjustment process in which capital flows in search of the highest rate of return and competition leads to adjustments in prices. Instead of proving that the "equilibrium tableau," in which prices are stationary and r* is the uniform profit rate, "will emerge," however, he merely asserted it. Apparently he believed that proof was not required because he shared the common, albeit erroneous, belief that if an equalized rate of profit was to re-emerge after the technical innovation (premise (viii)), this would immediately entail that prices had adjusted to a stationary state.
For the sake of maximum clarity, let me stress again that the issue is not whether it has been shown, or can be shown, that profit rates will actually equalize after the adoption of a technical change. Though investigations into the dynamic stability of the Sraffian model have yielded ambiguous conclusions in this regard (see, e.g., Duménil and Livy, 1993), the Okishio theorem is restricted, and commonly understood to be restricted, to cases in which a uniform rate of profit is indeed re-established.3 Rather, the issue is whether the capital mobility that tends to equalize rates of return on capital advanced also leads to the establishment of stationary absolute prices. I know of no evidence that this is the case, nor of any simulation that shows it to be generally true, nor even of any theoretical argument that supports it.4
IV. The TSS Interpretation
The TSS interpretation of Marx's value theory has been "discovered" numerous times by theorists working independently of one another.5 It differs from the standard interpretation in two seemingly minor but crucial ways. According to the standard interpretation, Marx's values and prices are two separate and timelessly determined "systems." According to the TSS interpretation, they are determined within historical time, and interdependently: output prices depend on the "value" rate of profit (surplus-value divided by the value of capital advanced), while the value of the capital advanced depends on the prices, not values, of means of production and subsistence.
This re-interpretation refutes all the allegations of logical inconsistency in the "quantitative" dimension of Marx's value theory. Total price and profit equal total value and surplus-value, the aggregate "value" and "price" rates of profit are equal, values cannot be negative and profits can be positive only if surplus-value is positive, the rate of profit in luxury industries affects the general rate and, what is most relevant to the present paper, labor-saving innovation itself can lead to a lower general (uniform or nonuniform) rate of profit (see Freeman and Carchedi, eds., 1996).
The TSS refutations of the Okishio theorem make use of the fact, emphasized above, that even if a uniform rate of profit is postulated, the level of the profit rate is not determined by physical coefficients alone; it depends also on the relation between input and output prices. Only when input and output prices happen to be equal to physical coefficients suffice to determine the level of the profit rate, otherwise one or another value theory is needed. The TSS refutations of the Okishio theorem employ Marx's value theory for this purpose.
Specifically, the rate of profit is computed in the following way. Both input and output prices are measured in labor-time per unit of output or, equivalently, in money per unit of output if the monetary expression of value is assumed to be constant over time. Input prices are taken as given (determined in the previous period or stipulated as initial conditions in the first period), and they, together with the means of production and subsistence advanced, determine the value of the constant (C) and variable (V) capital advanced. New value added equals the amount of living labor (L) extracted in production (or its monetary expression, assuming the monetary expression of value is constant). Surplus-value (S) equals L - V, and the general profit rate equals S/(C+V).
This is a temporal profit rate because the input prices used to compute C and V need not equal the subsequent output prices, and because the general rate is fully determined as a result of the production process, before outputs are sold. It is a single-system profit rate because C and V depend on the prices, not the values, of means of production and subsistence. If the profit rate is assumed to be uniform, then the aggregate output prices of each sector, in the absence of fixed capital, are determined by marking up costs in accordance with S/(C+V). By dividing the aggregate output prices by the gross outputs of the various sectors, the unit output prices are obtained, and they become the input prices of the next period.
V. Refuting the Okishio Theorem
Note that no premise of the Okishio theorem precludes the employment of Marx's value theory for the purpose of determining prices or the profit rate. Indeed, if the theorem is to be an internal critique of the logic of Marx's LTFPR, as it is meant to be, and not merely a conflicting theory of the profit rate based on an alien value theory, it cannot preclude the employment of Marx's value theory in this context. Note, moreover, that if one is to determine whether the Okishio theorem is true, i.e., determine whether post-innovation input and output prices will necessarily become equalized and therefore whether r* will necessarily become the economy's actual uniform post-innovation profit rate, the employment of some value theory is simply unavoidable. As has been stressed above, physical data and a uniform profitability condition are insufficient to determine either prices or the rate of profit unless input and output prices are postulated a priori to be equal. To invoke such a postulate here would be to assume away the very problem under investigation.
Marx's value theory, as interpreted above, does imply that post-innovation prices reach a stationary state and therefore that the actual uniform profit rate converges on r* in the special case in which the labor-saving innovation is one-time-only. Thereafter, physical coefficients remain unchanged throughout all time. As is well known, if the profit rate is always uniform and physical coefficients remain constant, prices will converge to a stationary state.
What happens, however, if the innovation is followed by subsequent innovations before prices have time to approach the stationary state? Because labor-saving innovation reduces commodities' prices (measured in labor-time or in money prices that express constant quanta of value), continuous labor-saving innovation leads to continuous reductions in prices (on average).
And if prices are continually falling, output prices are always lower than input prices. This implies that the general rate of profit will be lower than r*, and it is thus possible for labor-saving technical changes to lower the profit rate, even if uniform profitability is assumed. All of this is possible, moreover, without violating any premise of the Okishio theorem. A simple example will illustrate this. Assume a two-sector economy with the following as the initial techniques:
6 t. iron + 24 hrs. living labor -> 30 qr. wheat
44 t. iron + 11 hrs. living labor -> 55 t. iron
These assumptions satisfy premises (i)-(iii). Premise (iv) is satisfied by assuming that the real wage per unit of living labor is a constant 0.2893 qrs. of wheat. Initial input prices of 2.3026 and 0.7829 for iron and wheat, respectively, ensure that, initially, absolute prices are stationary and profit rates are equal, satisfying premises (v) and (vi).
Now imagine that the output of both wheat and iron, and the input of iron into the production of each goods, all increase by 10% per period, and that the amount of living labor extracted increases by 1.2% per period in both sectors.
Because the new techniques of each period thus use no more iron, and less living labor, per unit of output, they are cost-reducing at current prices, thus satisfying premise (vii). Finally, assume that the profit rates of the two sectors are continually equalized, which satisfies the last remaining premise, premise (viii). Results are reported in Table 1. We see that the relative price of iron-to-wheat, Pit/Pwt, does converge to a stationary level, 4.00, and that the time path of the relative price converges on the time path of the hypothetical relative price, Pi*/Pw*. The latter is the relative price which would exist were absolute input and output prices equal. Yet the actual input and output prices do not converge to a stationary state, but continually decline, and the ratio of the output price to the input price converges to 0.920 < 1 in both cases. Because the output prices are lower than the input prices, the actual profit rate, S/(C+V), is lower than the hypothetical r* and, whereas r* rises monotonically from 22% to 25%, the actual profit rate falls monotonically from 22% to 15%.6 Since all of the premises of the Okishio theorem were satisfied, while the conclusion that the post-innovation profit rate cannot be lower than the initial rate was negated, the Okishio theorem has been refuted. It is easy to come up with a multiplicity of similar counter-demonstrations, by varying the assumptions concerning the precise nature of the technical changes, the number of sectors, fixed capital, the size of the real wage, and so forth, in numerous ways. To refute the Okishio theorem, in other words, no particular model of technical change and accumulation is required. What is necessary is that the technical changes be labor-saving, that prices (measured in labor-time) fall when the amount of labor needed to produce the commodities falls, and that the innovations occur in rapid enough succession that convergence of prices towards a stationary state does not occur.
Table 1
In describing techniques, the preceding demonstration deals only with sectoral aggregates. It makes no assumptions concerning the techniques employed by the individual firms within each sector. It is therefore consistent with the demonstration to assume that it deals with the case in which there is only a single firm in each sector or, equivalently, with the case in which all firms in the sector employ the same techniques. Let us now assume this. What, then, does the demonstration reveal?
Because this is an example without fixed capital, if all firms in a sector employ the same technique, they all employ the most up-to-date, state-of-the-art technique. They begin from scratch each new period. Hence, no firm is technologically backward, or technologically advanced, relative to the others in the industry. This is true not only of existing firms, but of new entrants. Any new entrant into either sector in any period employs the exact same techniques as the existing firms, since better techniques are not yet available.
Therefore super-profit (surplus profit) does not exist here. That is, no firm, even new entrants, can obtain a higher rate of return than the average by having produced at a lower cost per unit. They have all, including new entrants, produced at the exact same cost per unit and therefore they all, including new entrants, obtain the exact same rate of return as the others. Hence, the fall in the actual profit rate, despite a constant real wage and a continuing series of Okishio-viable technical changes, simply cannot be attributed to the existence of technologically backward firms. The actual rate of profit is not the rate of profit obtained by the technologically backward firms only. Nor does the existence of technologically backward firms lower the general rate of profit below the rate obtained by the technologically most advanced firms. These explanations are false for the simple reason that, in this example, all the firms in the industry are "most advanced." Therefore the decline in the rate of profit pertains to them all. And therefore the decline in the rate of profit is a decline in the profit rate obtained by the technologically most up-to-date producer, employing the state-of-the-art technique.
There is no reason to believe, i.e., no textual evidence of which I am aware, that Marx's LTFPR refers to the tendency of the rate of profit received by the most advanced producers only. Rather, it refers to the tendency of the general rate of profit, the weighted average of all the profit rates throughout the economy. But even if one has the opposite interpretation, or for some reason wishes to restrict the examination of the tendency of the profit rate to the profit rate obtained by the most advanced producers only, the example above demonstrates conclusively that their rate of return on capital advanced can fall, even when they employ Okishio-viable techniques and the real wage rate is constant.
VI. A Post-Mortem
Although the Okishio theorem is false, the exercise does enable us to draw some valid conclusions concerning the impact of technical change on the profit rate. The mathematics does demonstrate that r*, the particular hypothetical uniform profit rate which would exist were prices to reach a stationary state after a viable technical innovation, cannot be lower than the initial hypothetical rate r. Moreover, were technical innovation a rare "perturbation" of an otherwise stationary state, and not an ongoing phenomenon, then the convergence property of the uniform profit rate equations implies that the actual profit rate, if continually equalized, would converge to r*.
These conclusions, though valid, suggest very little about how labor-saving technical change will affect the tendency of the general profit rate in actual capitalist economies. Nor do they challenge the logic of Marx's LTFPR in the least. Even a cursory reading of the law immediately discloses that it refers to the impact of a continuing series of technical changes), and that these technical changes are held to lead to a continuing series of reductions in commodities' prices (given a constant monetary expression of value) (Marx 1981, Ch. 13; see, especially, pp. 318-19 and 332-33).
It has recently been suggested in private correspondence that the TSS critiques have not refuted the Okishio theorem, since it was meant all along to apply only to the case of one-time-only technical change or, alternatively, that the theorem was meant all along to be restricted to the special case in which post-innovation input and output prices are equal.7 I do not find these suggestions plausible; apart from the TSS literature, discussions of the Okishio theorem do not even raise these issues. It seems doubtful, moreover, that the theorem would have gained the prominence it has, or that it would have been so widely regarded as refuting Marx's LTFPR, had it been interpreted as being so restricted in scope.
In any case, none of this has the slightest bearing on whether the theorem is true or false. All that matters is whether its conclusion follows necessarily from the explicitly stated premises of the theorem. In no existing version of the theorem is it stated explicitly that only a single new innovation is permitted, nor that the equality of input and output prices is a premise. The theorem, as stated in all existing versions, is therefore false.
This should be acknowledged, and the excessive claims that have been made concerning the import of the theorem should be retracted, in print. It may turn out that readers will then still find the theorem significant, and perhaps even still regarding it as a challenge to the logical coherence of Marx's LTFPR. That is for them to decide. They cannot make that decision, however, unless and until the record is corrected. As long as the record is not corrected, moreover, those who seek to build upon Marx's own presentation of the LTFPR and to analyze current realities on its basis, will wrongly continue to be regarded as ignorant and as dogmatic apologists.
Unfortunately, nearly fifteen years have elapsed since the publication of the first TSS refutation of the theorem (Ernst 1982), and the record has yet to be corrected.
  1. This interpretation, which will be discussed below, is also known as "sequential non-dualist." The term "temporal single-system" was first used in Skillman (1995). Recently, Ramos (1996) has also challenged the Okishio theorem from a TSS perspective, focusing on the problem of changes in the money/labor-time relation brought about by technical change.
  2. Roemer (1981) generalized Okishio's theorem to include fixed capital. For simplicity, I will abstract from fixed capital below, although the ensuing discussion applies equally to the fixed capital version of the theorem. The refutations of the theorem by Kliman (1988, 1996) and Freeman (1996) apply to both the circulating capital and fixed capital cases.
  3. Apparently the rationale for this restriction is a passage in Capital III, in which Marx discusses why a profit-maximizing capitalist would voluntarily adopt innovations that lower the general profit rate, i.e., precisely the argument that the Okishio theorem re-examines. Marx (1981:373-74) argues that the innovating capitalist at first reaps superprofits (and thus raises his/her own profit rate), but that "competition makes the new procedure universal and subjects it to the general law [of value]. A fall in the profit rate then ensues - firstly perhaps in this sphere of production, and subsequently equalized with the rest - a fall that is completely independent of the capitalists' will." Given that the theorem is intended as a disproof of Marx's LTFPR, and not a claim concerning actual economies, it is reasonable for its scope to be restricted to the case of uniform profitability. Marx's reference here to the equalization of the rate of profit, however, is best understood as a reference to a tendency, not a static outcome.
  4. The simulation models that investigate the dynamic stability of the Sraffian model do not address this issue at all, since they work with relative prices only. To guarantee that prices will be stationary throughout all time, neoclassical intertemporal equilibrium models need to assume not only perfect mobility of capital, but also perfect knowledge of the future, perfect futures' markets for all commodities, and no time preferences. Such postulates are of course absent from Marx's LTFPR and from all versions of the Okishio theorem.
  5. In addition to the TSS works already cited, see, for instance, Giussani (1991-92), Maldonado Filho (1995), and the contributions by Carchedi, de Haan, Freeman, and McGlone and Kliman in Freeman and Carchedi, eds. (1996).
  6. The importance of the systematic divergence between these two profit rates, and the concomitant failure of the actual input and output prices to converge, cannot be overemphasized. It is commonly believed that the value, price, and profit magnitudes of the TSS interpretation differ from those derived from simultaneous equation models only during a "disequilibrium" dynamic adjustment process, so that the "true" magnitudes are those of the simultaneous equation models, which act as "centers of gravity" to which the actual magnitudes converge or around which they fluctuate. Results such as those above show the utter falsity of this belief.
  7. These views have been put forward on the Outline of Political Economy List (OPE-L), a closed e-mail discussion list.
Duménil, G. and D. Livy. 1993. The Economics of the Profit Rate: Competition, Crises and Historical Tendencies in Capitalism. (Aldershot, UK: Edward Elgar).
Ernst, J.R. 1982. Simultaneous Valuation Extirpated: a contribution to the critique of the neo-Ricardian concept of value, Review of Radical Political Economics 14:2.
Freeman, A. 1996. Price, Value and Profit--a continuous, general treatment, in A. Freeman and G. Carchedi (eds.), Marx and Nonequilibrium Economics (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar).
Freeman, A. and G. Carchedi (eds.). 1996. Marx and Non-equilibrium Economics (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar).
Giussani, P. 1991-92. The Determination of Prices of Production, International Journal of Political Economy 21:4.
Kliman, A.J. 1988. The Profit Rate Under Continuous Technological Change, Review of Radical Political Economics 20:2&3.
__________. 1996. A Value-theoretic Critique of the Okishio Theorem, in A. Freeman and G. Carchedi (eds.), Marx and Nonequilibrium Economics (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar).
Maldonado-Filho, E. 1995. Release and tying up of Productive Capital and the "Transformation Problem." Presented at ASSA conference, Washington, D.C., January.
Marx, K. 1973. Grundrisse: Foundations of the critique of political economy. (New York: Vintage Books).
__________. 1981. Capital: A critique of political economy, Vol. III (New York: Vintage Books).
Okishio, N. 1961. Technical Changes and the Rate of Profit, Kobe University Economic Review 7.
Parijs, P. van. 1980. The Falling Rate of Profit Theory of Crisis: A rational reconstruction by way of obituary, Review of Radical Political Economics 12:1.
Ramos, A. 1996. Labor, Money, Labor-Saving Innovation and the Falling Rate of Profit (draft manuscript).
Roemer, J. 1978. The Effect of Technological Change on the Real Wage and Marx's Falling Rate of Profit, Australian Economic Papers 17 (June).
__________. 1981. Analytical Foundations of Marxian Economic Theory. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Skillman, G. 1995. The Temporal Single-System Approach to the "Transformation Problem," in Kliman-McGlone and Freeman. Presented at URPE Summer conference, August.
Sraffa, P. 1960. Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities: Prelude to a critique of economic theory. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
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2020.10.18 00:42 Guards_Armoured_Arma [A3][WW2][Recruiting] Guards Armoured Division

[A3][WW2][Recruiting] Guards Armoured Division

The Guards Armoured Division is a serious attitude British World War II milsim unit.
Our primary focuses are teamwork, historical accuracy, operational realism and enjoyable experience. Roots of the unit date back to May 2017.
To describe our unit the best, we’re a unit that is heavily influenced by history of the real Guards Armoured Division during World War II. Medium-Large Sized unit, fielding more than 30 members weekly. Feedback is heavily valued in order to shape the unit for us all to enjoy. Ranks are given according to their need and leadership skills, rather than as a reward for good performance. We have different and enjoyable supportive branches to join that won't completely take your infantry experience. Many opportunities to conduct historical operations focused on various nations. Relaxed attendance, operational seriousness. New player friendly.

Ranks and roles

Motor Platoon:
Motor Infantry Sections are the main backbone of our operations. They're operating out of their designated vehicles (M5 Halftracks, Bren Carriers & others, depending on Operation setting) and they're composed of two Groups. There are three in a regular Platoon.
HQ Section is the section which commands the Motor Platoon in the field and coordinates the operation with the Armoured Troop and Carrier Platoon. This usually holds 6-7 men, and sometimes holds a Mortar / PIAT detachment depending on the situation.
Our Motor Platoon represents the 1st Battalion, Grenadier Guards in main operations.
Carrier Platoon:
Carrier Platoon is an Infantry Section operating in smaller groups and utilizing the nimble Universal Carriers. They often carry out Scouting duties before major engagements. On foot, without their Universal Carriers, these lads still create a solid threat to the enemy troops, and are in no way less prepared for contact than their Halftracked counterparts.
Our Carrier Platoon represents the 1st Battalion, Welsh Guards in main operations.
Armoured Troop:
Armoured Troops are utilized in majority of our operations, using a wide variety of vehicles depending on their task. (Such as Sherman I or Sherman Vc Firefly or Stuart VI) Their primary role in the main operations is to take the vanguard in major advances, but may also be deployed as Armoured Reconnaissance Troop if the situation requires it.
Our Armoured Troop represents the 2nd (Armoured) Battalion, Grenadier Guards in main operations.
Royal Army Medical Corps:
Our medical branch. Their task is to keep everyone in the Battlegroup up in good shape and providing medical service.

Guards Armoured Division during \"The Great Swan\", 1944.


Our attendance policy is far from being strict. We are aware of the real life issues that everybody may have at any chosen point of their life, as well as their regular out-of-game duties. We can understand whenever somebody isn’t able to play the whole week due to their work schedule.

Our schedule:

  • Wednesday - 7 PM BST / 8 PM CEST / 2 PM EST - Bonus Mission - Not part of the regular schedule. Announced beforehand.
  • Friday - 7 PM BST / 8 PM CEST / 2 PM EST - Main Mission - Main missions, mostly cover Guards Armoured Division.
  • Saturday - 7 PM BST / 8 PM CEST / 2 PM EST - Bonus Mission - Not part of the regular schedule. Announced beforehand.
  • Sunday - 7 PM BST / 8 PM CEST / 2 PM EST - Training / Exercise - Not part of the regular schedule.

Guards Armoured Division advancing towards Veghel, Operation Market Garden.

Requirements & joining

It is required that applicants are at age of at least 15 and have a working microphone. We expect that the applicants can act mature and serious during the operations, as well as respectful towards the other members of the unit throughout the whole stay.
If you’re willing to join - make sure to join our Discord found in Links & media part of this post.
A new member starts at the rank of Recruit. Recruits are gentlemen that had just joined the unit and hadn't completed their basic training course yet.
Recruits have low priority in different matters - Guardsmen have priority over them. Basic special (non-branch) roles such as machine gunners can be taken as long as a Guardsman ranked member isn't interested in filling that position during the operation.
A recruit should never be afraid to ask different game related matters, such as procedures or game mechanics.

Links & media

Steam group:
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2020.10.16 17:56 street-guru Morgan Stanley outlines 6 key investing debates to wrap 2020 and head into 2021

Morgan Stanley outlines 6 key investing debates to wrap 2020 and head into 2021
Morgan Stanley:
"I. How Much Will E-Commerce Decelerate in ’21 and Who Will Decelerate the Most? We model US e-commerce to decelerate to 8% growth in ’21 (vs 41% in ’20). At a micro level, we expect $ETSY*- and $W*- to see the sharpest deceleration in ’21 (see Exhibit 5). We model $AMZN*+ to grow US GMV by 14%. Today we lay out 6 analyses across AMZN (Prime member growth and Prime/Non-Prime spending trends), $EBAY*(buyer income mix changes and retention), ETSY (buyer retention), and $CHWY* (buyer retention) highlighting some of the logic behind our base case slopes of deceleration. We continue to be most positive AMZN due to the expected profit beats ahead (see here). Adjusting AMZN PT to $3,750 to account for incorrect rounding."
"II. What is Our Rank Order on the Ad Names for 4Q and ’21? Digital ad checks have generally been strong across the board (with the exception of $TWTR* where they are mixed), as advertisers continue spend to reach people through surging e-commerce and into the expected shelter-in holiday. We have also heard of some advertisers planning to spend more this 4Q due to extra budget flush (in some cases from having pulled back on $FB* through boycott) and faster digital shift due to still relatively weak TV audiences. In all, we expect a ~900bp Q/Q improvement in the pace of 3Q ad growth across the coverage (with further strength into 4Q) and see all 6 digital ad players beating Street top-line estimates. Given these broad-based top-line beats, we turn to EBITDA revisions for relative preference and are most positive $GOOGL*+ into '21, as we are ~20% ahead of Street 3Q EBITDA. We are ~4% ahead of Street ’21 EBITDA. For more on why we are bullish GOOGL into ’21, please see here. We also remain OW FB and $PINS*.
"III. Why are Video Games Trading So Poorly and Where Would We Deploy Capital? Video game publishers haven’t traded well lately (down 1-6% since 2Q earnings) because we think the Street largely categorizes them as shelter-in beneficiaries with large drop-offs expected in ’21. We disagree; as detailed in Which Publishers Will Be Most Durable Post Shelter in Place? while we expect some player churn next year, we think the market is under-appreciating the structural pull forward in gaming from shelter-in. We remain most bullish $ATVI*+ due to Call of Duty Warzone and mobile monetization this/next year and Diablo on deck (please see here and here). We are also bullish $ZNGA*+, with the stock pricing in ’21 core bookings to fall below ’19 (see here)."
"IV. What Are Our Favorite “Recovery/Vaccine Plays”? Rideshare, travel and dating remain our best positioned recovery sub-sectors. Within these names, we remain OW UBER (though as detailed here the outcome of the Prop 22 ballot will be an important event in determining forward US growth profitability). We also like OW-rated $MTCH*+ as a "pent-up demand" reopening winner, which should help to drive 16% '21 subscriber growth in addition to ARPU acceleration, led by Tinder Platinum. Within travel, while we are EW we prefer $BKNG* given superior execution and a still-existing call option on success in the US. While it may not matter for longer-term investors, we note that Street 3Q/4Q rideshare bookings estimates appear too high and we are just in-line with Street travel bookings estimates."
"V. What Do We Think on Regulation? We don’t expect headlines to cease, but any change will likely take time. The recent proposal from the House of Representatives, the ongoing Department of Justice investigation (around GOOGL), and the potential of a November Blue Sweep have kept regulatory uncertainty at the top of investors’ minds. While we acknowledge the high degree of uncertainty, in our view, it is important to bear in mind 1) The difficulty and time (average of roughly 4 years to pass a bill) associated with passing any new regulation (please see here for more detail). 2) Even if Democrats do gain a majority within the Senate, policy proposals are still likely to be highly debated and take time (in our view) given the modest expected majority and likely presence of some conservative democrats within those seats. Any material policy change (in our view) around these enablers of the digital economy (jobs, GDP, etc) will take time and be difficult."
"VI. What Big Picture Debates Are We Focused on for '21? It's almost time to turn the page...and so for '21, we are already focused on the following key topics for our coverage. For all companies: how will work from home structurally change their cost structures/ability to invest. For FB/GOOGL, we look for material quantitative proof (users, merchants, GMV, ad spend growth, etc) of monetizing existing call options, such as Instagram Shopping, WhatsApp, Messenger, Google Shopping, Google Discover, and YouTube. For Amazon, we view this year’s logistics build and an expected build next year to showcase how close a third party logistics network could be. We also think this current last mile build will position AMZN to ship even more items through 1-day…setting up the ’21 holiday season to potentially be the “1-day holiday.” For the video game publishers we think the millions of people spending hours daily playing free to play Fortnite, Call of Duty Warzone and other private games showcases how the lines between gaming and social are blurring. This, in our view, speaks to how the game publishers' digital ecosystems may take one step closer being reviewed as ecosystems of digital engagement/monetization. For UBELYFT, the cost of doing business within Rides (speaking to the importance of Prop 22 vs AB5) and the durability and competitive environment within Eats are likely to continue to be debated."
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2020.10.16 15:00 i_Killed_Reddit Airtel’s Privacy Policy

Personal information collected and held by us may include but not limited to your name, father’s name, mother’s name, spouse’s name, date of birth, current and previous addresses, telephone number, mobile phone number, email address, occupation and information contained in the documents used as proof of identity and proof of address. airtel and its authorized third parties may collect, store, process following types of Sensitive Personal Information such as Genetic Data, Biometric Data, Racial or Ethnic Origin, Political opinion, Religious & Philosophical belief, Trade union membership, Data concerning Health, Data concerning natural personal's sex life or sexual orientation, password, financial information (details of Bank account, credit card, debit card, or other payment instrument details), physiological information for providing our products, services and for use of our website. We may also hold information related to your utilization of our services which may include your call details, your browsing history on our website, location details and additional information provided by you while using our services.
Airtel Privacy Policy
Screenshot, just in case.
Crossposted from here
Edit: Have a peep on competitor’s privacy policies too just in case.
  1. Jio’s privacy policy.
  2. Vi’s privacy policy.
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2020.10.16 14:48 StevenStevens43 Art Oenfer & the search for King Lots grail

Art Oenfer & the search for King Lots grail
Search for Lancelots grail:
In this article i am going to attempt to locate Lancelots grail, leading up to trying to finally identify the most likely candidate for King Arthur.
Now before we go any farther, i have left links below for the previous Art Oenfers.
You should not read the book back to front.
First read those below, starting at one, and then read this one.
King Art Oenfer & Son - Part 1
Gallus the Mac - Part 2
King Art Oenfer III & the barbarcia conspiriato - Part 3
King Art Oenfer IV & V - Part 4
King Art Oenfer VI - Part 5
King Art Oenfer & the historia francorum - Part 6
King Art Oenfer & The boys - Part 7
Link for photo
King Arthur
Ok, so as with most of my other articles, i will be investigating the myths and legends of traditional British history, comparing them to contemporary accounts, and also investigating the modern day criticisms from historians and scholars.
I will begin with the criticisms below.
I will also add, the criticisms are blank statements, and completely unhelpful without explanation into how they came to their conclusion, and without proving that they have the necessary understanding in the subject to make such a judgement.
King Arthur
The details of Arthur's story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, and modern historians generally agree that he is unhistorical.[2][3]
Link for photo
Arthurian coat of Arms
Y Gododdin:
So, where on earth do i begin with this?
I think i will begin with why it might be that King Arthur's earliest appearances are in Y Goddodin literature.
King Arthur
[2][3] The sparse historical background of Arthur is gleaned from various sources, including the Annales Cambriae, the Historia Brittonum, and the writings of Gildas. Arthur's name also occurs in early poetic sources such as Y Gododdin.[4]
Link for photo
Y Gododdin
And the reason King Arthur is so popular in Gododdin literature, probably has to do with Lancelot, which mythology depicts as being orphaned as a child and being brought up in the realm of the Lady in the lake.
Lancelot du Lac (meaning Lancelot of the Lake, Welsh: Lawnslot y Llyn), also written as Launcelot and other variants (including early German Lanzelet, early French Lanselos, early Welsh Lanslod Lak, Italian Lancelotto and Lanci[a]lotto, and Spanish Lanzarote del Lago) is one of the Knights of the Round Table in Arthurian legend, where he typically is depicted as King Arthur's greatest companion and one of his greatest knights. According to legend, Lancelot is the orphaned son of King Ban of Benwick, raised in the fairy realm by the Lady of the Lake.
Link for photo
King Lot:
Now, the mythological Lancelot, would most likely be the same person as the legendary King Lot of Lothian.
But basically, according to the infinite wisdom of modern day historians, scholars and university graduates, this is just something Geoffrey of Monmouth quite literally made up.
King Lot
Lot, Loth or Lothus /ˈlɒt/ is the king of Lothian, the realm of the Picts in the Arthurian legend. Such a ruler first appeared late in the 1st millennium's hagiographical material concerning Saint Kentigern (also known as Saint Mungo), which feature a Leudonus, king of Leudonia, a Latin name for Lothian. In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth adapted this to Lot, king of Lothian, in his influential chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae, portraying him as King Arthur's brother-in-law and ally. In the wake of Geoffrey's writings,
Link for photo
King Lots arms
Saint Mungo:
However, there is a factual and historic Saint, and founder of the city of Glasgow, named Saint Mungo.
Saint Mungo
Kentigern (Welsh: Cyndeyrn Garthwys; Latin: Kentigernus), known as Mungo, was a missionary in the Scottish Kingdom of Strathclyde in the late sixth century, and the founder and patron saint of the city of Glasgow.
Link for photo
Tomb of Saint Mungo in Glasgow cathedral
King Lleuddun:
Now, the factual and historic Saint Mungo, was the grandson of the allegedly legendary King Lot.
Hagiographic life
Mungo's mother Teneu was a princess, the daughter of King Lleuddun (Latin: Leudonus) who ruled a territory around what is now Lothian in Scotland, perhaps the kingdom of Gododdin in the Old North.
Link for photo
Saint Mungo sitting atop of the Glasgow coat of Arms
Constantine I of Picts:
Now did you read the quote where it said King Lot was the king of the Picts? Aswell as being King Arthurs Brother in law?
Well, this would be because the legendary King Lot, is the real Lancelot, and the historic Constantine I, is the surname of Lot.
Fergus II to Kenneth II
43, Constantine, 457 AD, Polydore Vergil (Anglica Historia, 1555) gives from here a succession close to Buchanan.[38]
Link for photo
Lothian from atop Arthur's seat
King of Norway:
However, nothing is known about the Historic Constantine.
It appears everything about Constantine is written under the name Lot, by the norse-gales.
And that is what Goddodin is.
It is norse-gaelic.
And Lot is also the king of Norway, as well as the Orkneys.
King Lot
Lot chiefly figures as king of Lothian, but in other sources he also rules Orkney and sometimes Norway. He is generally depicted as the husband of Arthur's sister or half-sister, often known as Anna or Morgause.
Fergus Mor:
And of course, as you will remember from the previous article, king of Dal Riata, Fergus Mor was sent by his parents to be brought up in Scandinavia, as wartorn Britain was too dangerous at this point in time.
Fergus Mor in later accounts
Fergusius II according to Buchanan's count, was raised in exile in Scandinavia. He later fought with the Franks, before eventually returning to Scotland and reconquering the Scottish lands.
Erc of Dalriata:
Now, i would just like to look at Fergus Mor's father just a second.
Fergus Mor
Fergus Mór mac Eirc (Scottish Gaelic: Fearghas Mòr Mac Earca; English: Fergus the Great) was a legendary king of Dál Riata. He was the son of Erc of Dalriada.
Eric and Alaric:
Then i would like to pop over to Scandinavia, and point out the two Swedish myhtological warrior brothers, Alaric and Eric.
Alaric and Eric
Alaric and Eric (Old Norse Alrekr and Eiríkr ), were two legendary kings of Sweden.
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Alaric and Eric hitting eachother with horse bridles
Alaric II:
Then i would like to point out the historic king of the Visigoths, who is best known in history for destroying the Western Roman empire forever, and had a Visgothic empire that actually, in the end, dwarfed the western Roman empire, and likely stretched as far as Scotland, Ireland and Wales, but were likely opposed by the Saxons.
Oh, and also a son of Euric. Who was the son of Alaric I, who had sacked Rome in 410 AD.
Therefore, historians and scholars that have been referring to Alaric and Eric for years, as mythological warriors, are simply not doing their jobs as historians, and would appear to not be historians.
Alaric II
Alaric II (Gothic: *Alareiks, *𐌰𐌻𐌰𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐍃, "ruler of all";[1] also known as Alaricus in Latin, c. 458/466 – August 507) was the King of the Visigoths in 484–507. He succeeded his father Euric as king of the Visigoths in Toulouse on December 28, 484; he was the great-grandson of the more famous Alaric I, who sacked Rome in 410.[2] He established his capital at Aire-sur-l'Adour (Vicus Julii) in Aquitaine. His dominions included not only the majority of Hispania (excluding its northwestern corner) but also Gallia Aquitania and the greater part of an as-yet undivided Gallia Narbonensis.
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Alaric II coin
And to top it off, it is infact quite contemporary that the norse gaelic realm of Gododdin, was located in Lothian.
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Gododdin on map
Geoffrey of Monmouth the fantasist:
Now i am going to deal with the claim from professional historians and scholars, that just as good as call Geoffrey a fantasist.
Now, whilst Geoffrey does credit King Arthur and the boys with a few military victories, he actually say's nothing about collapsing the Roman empire along the way.
But, that is exactly what contemporary history points to.
It points to kings of Lothian and Dal riata being from the exact same family as the kings that collapsed the Roman empire, and those kings are said to be related to King Arthur.
So, what is fanciful about it? It appears our scholars and historians must think the Roman empire was collapsed by fairy kings, if they do not believe that actual real kings were behind it.
Perhaps they have been reading historic childrens stories, as opposed to adult history.
King Arthur
Arthur is a central figure in the legends making up the Matter of Britain. The legendary Arthur developed as a figure of international interest largely through the popularity of Geoffrey of Monmouth's fanciful and imaginative 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain).[5]
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Lady of the lake (Waterfalls in the Norwegian fjords are often referred to with ladies names)
And now, on to Arthur constantine's sword, excalibur.
King Arthur
Many elements and incidents that are now an integral part of the Arthurian story appear in Geoffrey's Historia, including Arthur's father Uther Pendragon, the magician Merlin, Arthur's wife Guinevere, the sword Excalibur,
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Crocea Mors:
The sword would most likely be Crocea Mors, the sword that Nennius allegedly took from Julius Caesar.
I think it would far more likely be that, than the mythological contemporary tale spread by contemporary historians and scholars that Constantines sword was a message in the sky from Jesus.
.[7] The Britons hold firm, and that night Caesar flees back to Gaul. Cassibelanus's celebrations are muted by Nennius's death from his head wound. He is buried with the sword he took from Caesar, which is named Crocea Mors (Yellow Death).
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Constantines sword
Holy grail:
And now to the Holy grail.
Is it a cup? Is it a dish? Is it a stone?
Is it simply a treasure of great importance, as described in Arthurian literature, or is it some unknown and mystic magical thing connected to Jesus, as taught by most contemporary historians and scholars?
How do we solve this?
Well, the holy grail means different things to different people.
To Christians it is the drinking cup of Christ.
But we are not looking for the drinking cup of Christ.
We are looking for Lancelots holy grail.
King Arthur
The 12th-century French writer Chrétien de Troyes, who added Lancelot and the Holy Grail to the story, began the genre of Arthurian romance
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Location of the grail
Grail castle:
So, remembering that Lancelot is King Lot, let us begin the search for the divine grace, and castle of Corbenic, by finding out the most likely location for Galahads birth.
Corbenic (Carbone[c]k, Corbin) is the name of the Grail castle, the edifice housing the Holy Grail in Arthurian legend. It is a magical domain of the Grail keeper, often known as the Fisher King. The castle's descriptions vary greatly in different sources, and it first appears by that name in the Lancelot-Grail cycle where it is also the birthplace of Galahad.
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Corbenic castle
So, to begin the search for the divine grace, and Corbenic castle, we must find out who King Lots illegitimate son was.
Lancelot grail
The authors of the Vulgate Cycle used the Grail as a symbol of divine grace; Galahad, illegitimate son of Lancelot and Elaine, the world's greatest knight and the Grail Bearer at the castle of Corbenic
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Grail castle
Out of King Lots five legitimate sons, one of them is very much considered a bastard son, whos father is disputed.
So Mordred is obviously Galahad.
As Modredus, Mordred was depicted as Arthur's traitorous nephew and a legitimate son of King Lot in Geoffrey of Monmouth's pseudo-historical work Historia Regum Britanniae which then served as the basis for the following evolution of the legend since the 12th century. Later variants most often characterised him as Arthur's villainous bastard son, born of an incestuous relationship with his half-sister, the Queen of Orkney named either Anna, Orcades or Morgause.
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Sir Mordred
Arthur's seat:
Well, the most likely location for Mordreds birth would have been Arthur seat, as Arthur seat around 1600 years ago was one giant hill fort, with forts within forts, all the way to the summit.
Human history
A hill fort occupies the summit of Arthur's Seat and the subsidiary hill, Crow Hill.[9]
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Arthur's seat
Archaeological findings:
It must have been quite an incredible place.
Archaeologists have found several hillforts within what would have been Grail castle.
And they were written about in Y Goddodin.
Human history
Hill fort defences are visible round the main massif of Arthur's Seat at Dunsapie Hill and above Samson's Ribs, in the latter cases certainly of prehistoric date. These forts are likely to have been centres of power of the Votadini, who were the subject of the poem Y Gododdin which is thought to have been written about 600 AD. Two stony banks on the east side of the hill represent the remains of an Iron Age hill-fort and a series of cultivation terraces are obvious above the road just beyond and best viewed from Duddingston.
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Dunsapie hill fort, within a fort
This is going to have tbc in Search for the grail part 2, as i just ran out of characters.
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]

2020.10.15 23:10 Konstantin-V The Theory of "Red Fascism" (1)

There's a supposition that some countries which start as Stalinist may later morph into fascism. I won't address here the full version of the "Red fascist" theory, which claims that all "communist" (Stalinist) regimes are by definition fascist, as that's an unhistorical simplification which is tied to the simplistic theory that fascism just means authoritarianism. I won't address it with detail, but I will only say that if fascism really means simply authoritarianism, then Mussolini didn't have to call it fascism. The goal of this research is to determine the possibility of a transition from Stalinism to fascism, starting from the premise that they're not the same in all cases.
The USSR, 1929-1953
The first such case in both time and importance is, obviously, the state which spawned Stalinism: the USSR. To imply that Leninism is somehow fascist makes no sense, as the 1917 October Revolution was a purely leftist one, as opposed to the fascist Conservative Revolution. Lenin started a period of social progressivism, internationalism and generally reforms after he won the Civil War, which is opposed to fascism. In fact, Leninism ("Bolshevism") was a boogeyman among the European right at the time, and Italian Fascists used the "red peril" as a successful appeal to the conservative establishment.
However, after the death of Lenin, in the USSR started a power struggle which ended with the victory of the "Centrists", led by Joseph Stalin. Despite that position, they moved sharply to the right after winning. While the Right Opposition was concerned mostly with economics, Stalinists started espousing conservative positions one after another. This received the name of "Soviet Thermidor", referring to the moderate period of the French Revolution after 1795. As early as 1929, Leon Trotsky wrote that:
The expulsion of the Opposition from the Party, the arrests and the deportations constituted extremely important consecutive moments of the entire process [the Thermidor]. They signified that the Party was growing weaker and weaker and consequently that the power of resistance of the Soviet proletariat was also declining.
After the political reaction (bureaucratism) came the social reaction. Homosexuality was banned in 1934 and abortion followed two years later. The policy of korenizatsiya also was ended, which led to a surge of nationalism. As described by Trotskyist Denzil Dean Harber:
Thus, family life is being remodelled on ‘traditional’ lines; higher education is reserved for the children of the privileged strata; the army is reconstructed upon a hierarchical basis with the deliberate creation of a privileged officer caste divorced from the mass of the population; anti-religious propaganda is replaced by an alliance between the Stalinist bureaucracy and the Russian Orthodox Church.
This whole reactionary movement has been accompanied by, and, as it were, knit together by, a monstrous growth of nationalism, which now—so far as official Stalinist propaganda is concerned—equals that of any of the Imperialist states engaged in the present war.
This led to claims that there appeared, in fact, a new form of fascism. Accusations of this kind became especially common after the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, highly exploited by liberals, but were also directed against Stalinism by far-left critics like left-communists -- most prominently Otto Ruehle -- and anarchists. However, instead of them we will turn to Nikolay Berdyaev, a Russian religious philosopher and former Legal Marxist, who, despite his background as a metaphysician, offered a relatively sane definition of fascism:
Stalin is a ruler of the Eastern Asiatic type. Stalinism, that is to say communism of the constructive period, is being imperceptibly transformed into a peculiar sort of Russian fascism. All the characteristics of fascism are inherent in it, a totalitarian state, state capitalism, nationalism, 'leaderism', and a militarized youth. -- The Origins of Russian Communism, page 146
This definition, let me repeat, is surprisingly rational as compared to the moralistic anti-statism of a Ruehle or a Voline and the clamorous conspiracy theories of some right-wing critics, yet still has its faults. First of all, the USSR wasn't state capitalist. According to James Burnham,
The term “state capitalism” seems to be due to a misunderstanding ... When the state owns only a part, and a minor part, of the economy, with the rest of the economy remaining capitalist private enterprise, we might correctly speak of ‘state capitalism’ in connection with that minor state-owned part: since, as we have seen the economy remains in its balance capitalist and even the state-owned part may be directed primarily to the benefit of the capitalist part. But the “capitalism” in “state capitalism” is derived not from the state-controlled part. When the latter disappears, or becomes negligible, then the capitalism has disappeared. There is no paradox in saying that 10 times 10% state capitalism, far from equalling 100% capitalism, equals 0% capitalism. The multiplication is of state, not of capitalism. Though the mathematics would be much more complex, it would be nearer an analogy to say that, just as 10% state capitalist economy equals only 90% capitalist economy, so 100% (or even 80% or 70%) state economy would have eliminated capitalism altogether. -- The Managerial Revolution, page 114
This is a point also made by Trotsky and others before Burnham. State capìtalism isn't when the State engages in "capitalist" exploitation, but when it intervenes to a degree in a market economy. Norway, for instance, would be a better example of state capitalism than any Stalinist regime. In other words, state capitalism is actually just a mixed economy. The other critique of state capitalism is that, even if we were to define it as a State turned basically into a corporation and exploiting workers, the USSR wouldn't be an example of such a system, as the bureaucracy didn't own the means of production privately. Trotsky speaks of an unstable bureaucracy which would like to restore bourgeois property relations, yet is unable to do so due to the pressure of the proletariat. Even if such a "state capitalist" society in this sense ever emerged, it would be a ridiculous clumsy system that wouldn't last long due to contradictions between the capitalist owners and would probably become an easy objective for a revolution of some kind, either one of producers irritated by the great inequality this would create or one of consumers protesting against such an extreme form of monopolism and cronyism.
The other problem is nationalism: we have referred in this exact work that Stalin supported nationalism instead of proletarian internationalism. However, Stalin wasn't a nationalist in the fascist sense, nor even, most likely, a sincere nationalist at all, as we shall see. In 1944, he claimed that
The strength of Soviet patriotism lies in the fact that it is based not on racial or nationalistic prejudices, but on the peoples’ profound loyalty and devotion to their Soviet Motherland, on the fraternal partnership of the working people of all the nationalities in our country. Soviet patriotism harmoniously combines the national traditions of the peoples and the common vital interests of all the working people of the Soviet Union. Far from dividing them, Soviet patriotism welds all the nations and peoples of our country into a single fraternal family.
The "elder brother" of that "family", the "leading people" were, of course, the Russians. This paternalistic form of nationalism, despite many mentions of "the working people", was very similar to the state ideology of the old Russian Empire, later continued in exile by the Eurasianists. This form of nationalism was neither revolutionary nor palingenetic (to use Roger Griffin's definition of fascism), but a way to canalise popular support for the regime, together with and partly substituting the fading façade of Marxism. Just like the entire live of the bureaucracy, it was "contradictory, equivocal and undignified", to use Trotsky's words. A proof of this would be that even pro-Soviet nationalists like Nikolai Ustryalov, the founder of the National-Bolshevik movement in Russia, or the "Left-Eurasianists" Sergei Efron and D.S. Mirsky were executed by Stalin. It is also considered that this nationalism mostly faded away after WWII, leaving the USSR above suspicion of fascism.
A possible classification of Stalinism in the USSR, which the author used to defend, is authoritarian conservatism. This term is used by many historians of fascism to refer to right-wing dictatorships similar to fascism, yet more moderate in many aspects. Ideologically, Stalinism -- especially neo-Stalinism as espoused by various conservative groups in modern Russia, among them NOD), ROS and PVO-- seems to be really similar to it, including support of conservative nationalism rather than ethnic nationalism, some Christian traditionalism, mixed economy, etc. However, it isn't correct to evaluate Stalinism from the point of view of bourgeois societies. Stalinism isn't an ideology as such, as nowhere can we find a sincere "manifesto of Stalinism" without Marxist camouflage. It works, rather, as a "parasite" on Marxism, and thus, practically, we may say that Stalinism is at all times crypto-Stalinism. This is why they deny that such a thing exists, say that Stalin just developed Marxism and Leninism, etc. In my other essays, I already pointed to many contradictions that refute this supposition, so I don't see the need of repeating it here. It will be enough to conclude that Stalinism is neither conservative nor progressive -- in the most common sense of the word -- neither right nor left and yes, non-fascist.

Yugoslavia (1945-1989)
This one would be a strange element in the list, provided that Tito's rule is often considered more benevolent than those of other leaders of the Eastern Bloc. However, Yugoslavia had a sort of mixed economy, which was called either "market socialism" or "state capitalism" (the exact difference isn't important for us here), together with a clearly authoritarian political system, though less so than many surrounding state. For some people, this alone would be enough to consider it a form of fascism. For instance, according to the veteran historian of fascism and neoconservative publicist Michael A. Ledeen ("Beijing Embraces Classical Fascism", 1/5/2008), the PRC's adherence to fascism is proved by the fact that the CPC is"keeping a firm grip on political power while permitting relatively free areas of economic enterprise". Moreover, Yugoslavia's ideology had a nationalist element in the form of Pan-Slavism, which, let us remember, was invented by nineteenth century Russian reactionary ideologues as a way to support the elites of the old Russian Empire.
Despite this, Tito was rarely accused of fascism even during the harsh debates of the Cold War, and that's for a reason. First of all, leaving aside the discussion if modern China is really fascist, this state capitalist system isn't similar to the Yugoslavian economy. China, whatever it calls itself, presently has a system of what can rightfully be called state capitalism, with the State engaging in partnership with big business in a market framework. Now, Chinese central and local SOEs account for around 40 percent of the total number of enterprises.. Thus, according to Burnham's formula, China is 40% state capitalist and 60% capitalist. On the other hand, Ernest Mandel wrote the following on Yugoslavia:
On the 21st November 1944, all the companies and wealth of the Germans and their collaborators were confiscated and from that day on the nationalizations already included 82% of Yugoslav industry.
We already see the difference in quantity, but there's also difference in quality. There were no big businessmen like Jack Ma in today's China and the companies were at least supposed to be controlled by the workers, which is distinct from both fascist corporatism and Chinese state capitalism due to the existence of capitalist bosses in the two latter systems. In conclusion, Yugoslavia wasn't state capitalist, but later a more decentralised variant of Stalinism. To quote Max Shachtman:
Stalinism in Yugoslavia differs from Stalinism in the other “people’s democracies” only in that it is in a more favorable and more advanced position...The bureaucracy, typically Stalinist, has gone some distance in this respect, primarily by statifying production, eliminating the bourgeoisie as an economic force and by super-exploitation of forced labor. But this has not brought the country or the bureaucracy very far – certainly not far enough.
As of nationalism, Yugoslav nationalism (officially called "socialist patriotism") wasn't either reactionary (like Imperial Russian Pan-Slavism) or revolutionary (like fascist nationalism), but rather a complementary source of legitimation for the bureaucracy. It should also be remarked that Yugoslavia wasn't very conservative for its time, as seen, for instance, in the fact that homosexuality was legalised in half of the republics in 1974.
Romania (1965-1989)
Nicolae Ceaușescu achieved power in Romania in 1965, succeeding Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej. Though at first a liberal leader, he returned to a tougher Stalinist course after visiting China and North Korea in 1971. His ideological innovations were seen in his speech known as the July Theses, where influences from both Juche (self-sufficiency and autarky) and Maoism (the concept of "cultural revolution", which he tried to carry out in Romania on a smaller scale) were notable. Apart from tigher censorship, natalist policies such as a ban on abortions and an ubiquitous cult of personality, he introduced an increasingly nationalist ideology, continuing Gheorghiu-Dej's efforts to create an independent socialism. Though all spheres of political life were affected (one of the official youth organisations was called Șoimii Patriei or "Falcons of the Fatherland", while immoral public behavior was called "less than patriotic"), it particularly touched that of historiography, where the old concept of "protochronism", a trend to accentuate alleged past greatness and ancient origins in the time of the Dacians, was surprisingly reintroduced, returning to late nineteenth century nationalist historiography and breaking with Marxist historical science represented by Mihail Roller -- not unlike what took place in the USSR after the death of M.N. Pokrovsky. However, national history wasn't completely cleansed of Marxism, and there were attempts to describe Romanians as a proletarian people, citing that, supposedly, in the 270s only the patricians left Roman Dacia, leaving the plebeians, from whom Romanians were thought to have descended. There also was a description of Romans as "imperialists" opposed to the Dacian "national liberation movement", inspired by twentieth century socialist rhetorics. This led to a form of proletarian nationalism which considered Romanians inherently anti-imperialist.
The issue is that this had a parallel in early fascist thought. Enrico Corradini, the head of the proto-fascist Italian Nationalist Association (ANI in Italian), outlined a theory of proletarian nationalism in "Nationalism and Proletarian Nations", an essay included in his 1914 book "Il Nazionalismo Italiano":
For the right analogy, for the sake of true effectiveness and clarity; for the sake of showing how much nationalism responds to the spirit of our time, I call proletarian those nations which, like Italy, are in a state of dependence. Thus the proletariat, according to socialism, was and is still, in a state of dependence on the bourgeois class.
And continuing by analogy, I add that the nationalism wants to be for the whole nation what socialism was for the proletariat alone. What was socialism to the proletariat ? An attempt of redemption, in part, and within the limits of the possible, successful. And what does nationalism want to be for the nation? An attempt of redemption, and God will that it succeeds fully. -- p. 34
The economist, political scientist and constitutional jurist Franz Neumann described in his great book "Behemoth" this proletarian nationalism as a variety of "social imperialism", a tool of the ruling classes to direct class struggle to outside adventures instead of against the exploiters:
The new doctrine was first fully developed by the Italian Enrico Corradini, the founder of the Nationalist party, which had the greatest influence upon Italian Fascism. The Nationalist party and its Blue Shirts were taken over en bloc by the Fascist party, which then changed its name to the National Fascist party. The Nationalists were only a small minority, but they had more highly trained men than the Fascists, and their theories were accepted by the new party. Luigi Federzoni, Alfredo Rocco, Scipio Sighele, R. Forges-Davanzati all derive from the Nationalist party. Corradini, a high-school teacher, developed the first consistent theory of a social imperialism based entirely on the incorporation of the masses. The theory is, in itself, a hodge-podge of various elements, especially of French ‘integral nationalism’ and of revolutionary, syndicalism. The argument is simple. Italy is a great proletarian country. Between Italy and the surrounding states there is the same relation as between the working classes and the satiated bourgeoisie. Italy is imprisoned in the Mediterranean without industrial resources and without a colonial empire. Her nationalism must therefore be social, and Corradini even coined the term socialismo nazionale. He went beyond the mere assertion of a need for war and for heroism. He incorporated into his own work the doctrines of Georges Sorel and transformed them into means of ensnaring the working classes. -- Part I: The Political Pattern of National Socialism , Chapter VI: The Theory of Racial Imperialism, 4: Nationalist Forerunners of Social Imperialism, pages 160-161
Thus, it isn't hard to see that Corradini meant something very different from the Romanian ideology. For him, proletarian nationalism is a metaphor, an extrapolation of social conditions to interational relations. For protochronist historians and their ideological guides, Romania was literally a nation composed primarily of proletarians in the sociological sense of the word.
Another term frequently used to refer to Ceaușescu's rule, though never used by the rulers themselves, is "National Communism". Curiously, a fascistic group called "National Communist French Party", led by former Radical François-Antoine Clementi (more known as Pierre Clementi), operated during the 1930s. It had to drop all references to communism to be allowed to function under the German occupation in 1940, after which date it extensively collaborated. However, this coincidence is fortuitous, as that party used the word to refer to the national community and was even less committed to Marxism than Stalinists.
In conclusion, we can't describe any European Stalinist regime as fascist. After some time, we will proceed to analyse various regimes in Asia, that is, China (under Mao), North Korea and Cambodia (under Pol Pot). We also may shortly discuss a number of "red-brown" parties elsewhere in another occassion.
submitted by Konstantin-V to CapitalismVSocialism [link] [comments]

2020.10.15 14:11 StevenStevens43 King Art Oenfer & the boys

King Art Oenfer & the boys
King Art Oenfer & the boys:
In this article, i will still be leading up to "thee" King Arthur.
I will attempting to sort out more legends and trying to identify how they fit in to known contemporary history, whilst dealing with the denials of historians and scholars that oppose, and do not trust, traditional British history.
However is very much connected to the legends of King Arthur, it would be a good idea to first read the previous articles, before reading this one, as opposed to reading the book backwards.
The links are below.
King Art Oenfer & Son - Part 1
Gallus the Mac - Part 2
King Art Oenfer III & the barbarcia conspiriato - Part 3
King Art Oenfer IV & V - Part 4
King Art Oenfer VI - Part 5
King Art Oenfer & the historia francorum - Part 6
Link for photo
King Arthur
Fergus Mor:
So, this article will be dealing with the closest associates of King Arthur.
Fergus Mor in early sources
.[2] While it was suggested some believe Fergus claimed lineage to Arthur, the historian John Morris has suggested, instead, that Fergus was allowed to settle in Scotland as a federate of Arthur, as a bulwark against the Picts.
First king of Scotland:
I will begin with the claim that Fergus Mor was the first king of Scotland.
Fergus Mor
Fergus Mór mac Eirc (Scottish Gaelic: Fearghas Mòr Mac Earca; English: Fergus the Great) was a legendary king of Dál Riata. He was the son of Erc of Dalriada. While his historicity may be debatable, his posthumous importance as the founder of Scotland in the national myth of Medieval and Renaissance Scotland is not in doubt. Rulers of Scotland from Cináed mac Ailpín until the present time claim descent from Fergus Mór.
However, modern day historians and scholars have made the first error in only the second paragraph.
Fergus Mor being the first king of Scotland, would indeed be a myth.
But, Fergus Mor being the first Scot to rule in Alba, is not the same thing as Fergus Mor being the first king of Scotland.
And Scots and Irish people are only using the term Scotland, so that they are understood by the modern English readers, that are not fluent in the traditional British language.
But, they do infact mean Alba, not, Scotland.
And at that, only certain parts of Alba.
Fergus Mor in later accounts
Andrew of Wyntoun's early 15th century Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland says that Fergus was the first Scot to rule in Scotland
Sally Foster:
Now, the first expert opinion on the subject, comes from Sally Foster.
Apparently the Annals of Tigernach can easily be debunked by quite simply pointing out the fact that the writers of the annals were obviously not even aware of the real name of Dal Riata, when referring to Dal Dalom as Dal riada.
Fergus Mor in early sources
The historical record, such as it is, consists of an entry in the Annals of Tigernach, for the year 501, which states: Feargus Mor mac Earca cum gente Dal Riada partem Britaniae tenuit, et ibi mortuus est. (Fergus Mór mac Eirc, with the people of Dál Riata, held part of Britain, and he died there.) However, the forms of Fergus, Erc and Dál Riata are later ones, written down long after the 6th century.
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Dal Dalom 580 AD
Dal Dalom:
But i wonder if Sally Foster has the hindsight to understand why she referred to Dal riada as Dal riata?
It is because the audience she is narrating to, now know Dal riada as Dal riata.
And that is the exact same reason that the Annals of Tigernach would have referred to Dal Dalom as Dal Riada.
The name Dál Riata is derived from Old Irish. Dál, from Proto-Celtic \dālom*, means 'portion' or 'share' (as in 'a portion of land')
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Ulster & the hebrides (apologies i said it in English)
Now, Sally Foster makes one heck of a "statement" without farther elaborating.
She "declares" that the theory that the Scots invaded Alba from Ulster, is "unauthentic".
Fergus Mor in early sources
The record in the Annals has given rise to theories of invasions of Argyll from Ireland, but these are not considered authentic.[1]
Cambridge press:
Yet, according to Cambridge university, at least some Scots originally lived in Ireland, and came over to Argyll and established the kingdom of Dal Riata.
Notes (3)
The inhabitants of what is now Co. Antrim, Ireland, were known as the Scots, a name they transported to what is now Argyll and the adjacent islands where they established the kingdom of Dál Riata.
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Satellite image of Dal Riata
Mac Nisse Mor:
Next, Sally Foster wishes to question Fergus Mor being known as Mac Nisse Mor in a different dialect.
Apparently because it was something written in only the 10th or 11th century it cannot be trusted.
Fergus Mor in early sources
The Senchus states that Fergus Mór was also known as Mac Nisse Mór. These sources probably date from the 10th and 11th centuries respectively, between 20 and 30 generations after Fergus may have lived.
Buchanan's king!!:
Now, straight away, we can see that Sally Foster is taking quotes directly from a book that was written at a time when politics in Britain were such that a kings ancestral claim could be dismissed upon nothing more than national identity.
Though, Sally Foster does unintentionally throw up a conundrum.
Her version of history is opposed by King James VI who claims descent from Fergus Mor.
Fergus Mor in later accounts
Buchanan's king, James VI, shared the scholar's view of the origins of his line, describing himself in one of many verses written to his wife Anne of Denmark, as the "happie Monarch sprung of Ferguse race".
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King James VI
King James VI:
So, who was king James VI?
Well, he was King of Scotland, that later became king of England and Ireland.
During his reign we saw the union of the Crowns, which was the first step towards the formation of Great Britain as a political entity.
King James VI & I
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciaries, and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland, and thus a potential successor to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland,
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Union of the crowns
Colonisation of the Americas:
British and Irish expats in USA today, actually have King James VI to thank.
No sooner did King James VI take over the three crowns and begin campaigning for a united Britain and Ireland, he also began sending Ulster Scots over to USA and was setting himself up to add America to his titles.
King James VI
from 1603, returning to Scotland only once, in 1617, and styled) himself "King of Great Britain and Ireland". He was a major advocate of a single parliament for England and Scotland. In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonisation of the Americas began.
Link for photo
King James VI on Scottish gold coin
Guy Fawkes:
Unfortunately, it appears certain secterianists, nationalists, and loyalists, did not want "Buchanan's" protestant king of Scotland, Ireland, England and USA that swore Dal Riatan ancestral roots.
So bring on 5th of November, an assassination attempt was launched.
Guy Fawkes
A dissident Catholic, Guy Fawkes, was discovered in the cellars of the parliament buildings on the night of 4–5 November 1605, the eve of the state opening of the second session of James's first English Parliament.
Link for photo
Guy Fawkes autograph
Holyrood Palace:
Now, whilst i appreciate the professionalism of Sally Foster (was that her name?.. Scrolls back up to make sure i got her first name correct) in being discerning and not simply believing what she is told, i must however counter her doubts by trying to be equally as discerning.
In holyrood palace there was portraits of Scottish monarch's dating all the way back to Fergus I.
Now whilst i cannot find the Portrait of Fergus I, i can find the portrait for, Fergus II (Mor).
Fergus Mor
Nor was James VI the last ruler to share this belief. The Great Gallery of the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh was decorated with eighty-nine of Jacob de Wet's portraits of Scottish monarchs, from Fergus to Charles II, produced to the order of James's grandson.
Fergus II

Fergus II
Now, the problem this presents me, is i actually have holyrood palace assuring me that this is a genuine portrait of Fergus Mor, and on the other hand i have Sally Foster and a secterian loyalist, assuring me that Guy Fawkes knows more about British history than George Buchanan.
There is also the fact that Sally Foster is accusing Holyrood Palace of forgery.
But, Sally Foster should have still declared that there is infact supposed to be original evidence of Fergus Mor, and then explained why she believes it to be fraudulent.
Now, i will move on to the next claim.
The next claim is that Fergus Mor's ancestry can be traced waaaay back, and forty six generation farther.
Fergus Mor in early sources
The Senchus and the Duan name Fergus's father as Erc son of Eochaid Muinremuir. A Middle Irish genealogy of the kings of Alba gives an extensive genealogy for Fergus: [Fergus] m. h-Eircc m. Echdach Muinremuir m. Óengusa Fir m. Feideilmid m. Óengusa m. Feideilmid m. Cormaicc, and a further forty-six generations here omitted.[2]
Link for photo
Holyrood palace
Crimthann Mor:
Now, historians and scholars need to get working on what system they are using to determine whether or not someone is historical or not.
Take for example the 4th Century Crimthann Mor.
Which part of him is considered mythological, and which part is not?
(And i wish they would stop using the term Scotland.. In the 4th Century it was Caledonia).
Crimthann mac Fidaig
Crimthann Mór, son of Fidach /ˈkriːvən ˈmɔːr mæk ˈfiːaɪ/, also written Crimthand Mór, was a semi-mythological king of Munster and High King of Ireland of the 4th century. He gained territory in Britain and Gaul, but died poisoned by his sister Mongfind. It is possible that he was also recognised as king of Scotland.
Link for photo
Cornish harbour thought to have been used as an Irish port
Tintagel castle:
And i would think it is very likely, that the fortress that archaeologists believe Crimthann Mor built, translated from Dinn Tradui, to tintagel.
Dind Tradui
According to the Sanas Cormaic,[3] Crimthand Mór mac Fidaig built a great fortress in Cornwall known as Dind Traduí or Dinn Tradui (Dun Tredui/e, fortress of the three ramparts).[4] There appears to be little doubt that it existed,[5]
Like for photo
Archaeological remains of Tintagel castle
Conaire Mor:
Of course, by the time we get to 63 BC, the time of Conaire Mor, we are definitely back to mythology again.
The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 63–33 BC,[3] that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 110–40 BC.[4] A descendant of Íar mac Dedad, Conaire belonged to the legendary Clanna Dedad, the legendary royal family of the Érainn. His descendants in Ireland and Scotland were known as the Síl Conairi. The last Gaelic king of Scotland from the line from Conaire Mór was Alexander III of Scotland.
Link for photo
Connor Macleod
Constantine I of Picts:
Now, whilst Fergus I appears to have control of the West portion of Scotland, i am very interested in whoever it is, said to have control of the east portion.
Fergus Mor in early sources
[2] While it was suggested some believe Fergus claimed lineage to Arthur, the historian John Morris has suggested, instead, that Fergus was allowed to settle in Scotland as a federate of Arthur, as a bulwark against the Picts.
Polydore Vergil:
According to George Buchanan, and Polydore Vergil, it was Constantine I, reigning from 457 AD until 479 AD.
And as you will have read the previous articles, i will not have to explain who Uther Pendragon was.
Nor will i have to explain the connection with the Constantine dynasty.
Fergus II to Kenneth II
Constantine I 457 Polydore Vergil (Anglica Historia, 1555) gives from here a succession close to Buchanan.[38]
An i will just say this.
The Pendragons were not the real names of the sons of Constantine III of the Western Roman empire.
Obviously, their surnames would have been consistant with their fathers, in any number of abbreviated forms.
But the Pendragons was a nickname they invented themselves.
So, could Uther have been Constantine I?
[5] and the cycles based on his work, it was Uther's older brother (elsewhere called Aurelius Ambrosius) who saw the comet and received the name "Pendragon", Uther taking his epithet after his death.
Link for photo
Uther Pendragon
6th Century:
But, whether Constantine I of Picts was Uther Pendragon, or whether he was not, is not something i am going into farther in this article.
That will be for "thee" king Arthur article.
Instead i will move forward to the "horrific" journalism presented by modern day historians and scholars, that appear to be merely pretending to have an actual grasp on the subject.
They say that there is no evidence of anyother king in Scotland (Alba Girrrr) apart from Ceretic of Alt Clut, who apparently met Saint Patrick.
Fergus Mor in early sources
These sources, while they offer evidence for the importance of Fergus Mór in Medieval times, are not evidence for his historical career. Indeed, only one king in the 6th century in Scotland is known from contemporary evidence, Ceretic of Alt Clut, and even this identification rests upon a later gloss to Saint Patrick's Letter to Coroticus.
Link for photo-_stained_glass,_Saint_Patrick-_detail.jpg)
Saint Patrick
Pope Celestine I:
But what i want to know, is how on earth could Saint Patrick have met Ceretic in the 6th century?
(A) there is no evidence for the existence of Saint Patrick.
(B) It was Saint Palladius that was sent to Ireland in 431 AD by Pope Celestine I in 431 AD, allegedly helped by Saint Patrick who acted as a missionary.
And in Scotland, Saint Patrick is known by his official name, as recorded by the Bishops of Rome and the Vatican, Saint Palladius.
He sent Palladius) to Ireland to serve as a bishop in 431. Bishop Patrick continued this missionary work.
Link for photo#/media/File:St_Palladius_Fordoun.jpg)
Saint Palladius church, Aberdeen, Scotland
Patrick the Elder:
Though i am not going deep into this either.
Even in Ireland, Saint Palladius was regarded as Patrick the Elder.
However Patrick the junior was not "Saint Patrick".
It was a pagan Patrick from 370 AD.
[17] A variety of dates are given for his death. In 457 "the elder Patrick" (Irish: Patraic Sen) is said to have died: this may refer to the death of Palladius, who according to the Book of Armagh was also called Patrick.[17]
But the point is, they know nothing about Patrick.
They cannot even get the century correct.
And Ceretic Guletic was a king in Stratchclyde, western Scotland.
He must have reigned prior to 457 AD, as Saint Palladius died in that year.
Ceretic Guletic
Ceretic Guletic of Alt Clut was a king of Alt Clut (modern Dumbarton) in the 5th century.
And it continues:
And now, all of a sudden, King Clut is actually not the only king they can be sure of.
They can now be sure of a whole host of Fergus Mor's descendants, even though earlier in the article Sally Foster appeared to think even the mere existence of Dal Riata was debatable.
But, even though they appear to have evidence for his grandsons and and great grand children, they can still apparently see no connection with Fergus Mor.
Is this denialism?
Fergus Mor in early sources
The first kings of Dál Riata whose existences are reasonably sure are Fergus's grandsons Gabrán mac Domangairt and Comgall, or perhaps his great-grandson Áedán mac Gabráin.
Stones of stonehenge:
Now, in my previous article, i "deliberately" left out Merovech bringing the stones of Ireland to Stonehenge.
I was not being naughty, i simply did not want to bring it up in that article.
With Aurelius on the throne, Uther leads his brother in arms to Ireland to help Merlin) bring the stones of Stonehenge from there to Britain.
Geoffrey of Monmouth:
Now, whilst Geoffrey does mention Salisbury as the location of the giants ring, i would like to see documented proof from historians and scholars that Geoffrey was indeed talking about the stones of stonehenge when he wrote about the boys bringing the stones back to Britain.
Only there allegedly was a stone brought from Ireland to Britain during this period.
Origin and legends
One story concerns Fergus, son of Erc, the first King of the Scots in Scotland, whose transport of the Stone from Ireland to Argyll, where he was crowned on it, was recorded.[3]
Link for photo.jpg)
Replica of the stone of Scone
Stone of Destiny:
The stone was a coronation stone, used to coronate Scottish kings.
Stone of Scone
The Stone of Scone (/ˈskuːn/; Scottish Gaelic: An Lia Fáil, Scots: Stane o Scuin)—also known as the Stone of Destiny, and often referred to in England as The Coronation Stone—is an oblong block of red sandstone that has been used for centuries in the coronation of the monarchs of Scotland
Link for photo
Scone palace
Now, apparently Fergus Mor was actually raised in Scandinavia.
Fergus Mor in later accounts
Fergusius II according to Buchanan's count, was raised in exile in Scandinavia. He later fought with the Franks, before eventually returning to Scotland and reconquering the Scottish lands.
So what i am looking for, from contemporary accounts, is a Danish family from this period, that are considered royals, and have something to do with fighting Franks.
This could only be one family, really.
Basina of Thuringia
Basina or Basine (c. 438 – 477) was remembered as a queen of Thuringia in the middle of the fifth century,
Link for photo
Basina & Childeric I
However, Basina left her husband Bisinus to marry king of the Franks, Childeric.
She left her husband, king Bisinus and went to Roman Gaul. She herself took the initiative to ask for the hand of Childeric I, king of the Franks, and married him. For as she herself said, "I want to have the most powerful man in the world, even if I have to cross the ocean for him".[1]
And it is likely that Ragnarach, who became a Frankish king, did so due to his close familial relationship to Basina.
Mother? Sister? Who knows.
However those that know the Arthurian legends well, should be by this point, penny dropping.
Ragnachar or Ragnarius (died 509) was a Frankish petty king (regulus) who ruled from Cambrai. According to Gregory of Tours, Ragnachar "was so unrestrained in his wantonness that he scarcely had mercy for his own near relatives".[1] According to the Gesta episcoporum Cameracensium, Clovis and Ragnachar were related through Clovis's mother, Basina, a Thuringian princess.[2]
But, who Ragnachar is, and what relation to King Arthur he is, if any, shall have to wait for now.
I would welcome Sally Foster to produce original source material to prove that historians and scholars doubting the legitimacy of Scottish, Irish or Welsh kings, pre-dates the King James IV campaign.
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]

2020.10.13 22:46 cincbus Introducing: The Spanish Royal Family

Royal Family Twitter: u/CasaReal
King Alfonso III (1886-1941)
Gonna go back one more generation than usual to start this wild ride.
Alfonso the III's father, Alfonso XII, died while his mother was pregnant with him, thus he was King upon his birth in 1886. She served as regent until his 16th birthday when he assumed full authority as King. After a series of poor choices, he aligned his fortunes to the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, who fell from power in 1930. Municipal elections in 1931 resulted in a landslide victory for the Republican and Socialist parties, and they demanded the King abdicate the throne. The King went into exile but refused to abdicate.
While exiled, his eldest son, Alfonso, renounced his right to the throne to marry a commoner.
His second son, Jaime, renounced his rights to the throne because he was deaf.
This left his third son, Juan, as heir apparent. In 1947, General Francisco Franco declared Spain a monarchy yet again, calling it a “restoration”. However, he did not trust Juan as heir. As a result, in 1969, his son, Juan Carlos, was selected as King.
King Juan Carlos I (b. 1938) (abdicated)
Juan Carlos is the grandson of Alfonso XIII, the last king of Spain before the monarchy was abolished in 1931. He was born in exile in Rome, however was allowed back to Spain in 1948 to be further educated there. He joined the army, completing his officer training from 1955-1957. Afterwards, he spent time in both the naval school and the air force school, and later studied law, international political economy and public finance at the University of Madrid.
He was selected to be King of Spain over his father, Juan, by General Franco.
So, why did Franco bring back the monarchy? I found this answer online:
“We’re accustomed to believing a tyrant like Franco could do anything he wanted. Yet, in reality, his options were very limited, amounting to:
a) Do nothing OR appoint another military strongman to take his place.
b) Restore the republic.
c) Restore the monarchy.
There really are no further choices. Regarding (a), Franco was well aware that dictatorships are little more than the cult surrounding the person of the dictator, who is unable to transfer the cult to any 3rd party. So, a dead dictator equates to a dead dictatorhip, perhaps not immediately but before very long the ‘Franco Regime Without Franco’ was bound to implode. Franco accepted this to be an awkward truth, but he swallowed the bitter pill nonetheless.
Option (b) was never in the cards — Franco detested the Republic he fought to unseat and never even considered bring one back to govern Spain post-mortem.
That only leaves option (c). For Franco, the issue was not Monarchy Vs. Republic but rather (i) what sort of monarchy, and (ii.) incarnated by whom? The choices might seem straight-forward, but reality was rather complex since the legitimate heir to the throne (Juan de Bourbon, Count of Barcelona) was a man with whom Franco agreed on practically nothing. The Count of Barcelona made his political philosophies publicly know in the so-called Laussane Manifesto (Mar, 1945), the contents of which were diametrically opposed to the Franco Regime on practically all matters of importance.
Hence, in ’47 Franco did the only thing he regarded as workable — restoring the monarchy in theory but leaving the throne vacant, pending an eventual nomination to fill the seat. The temporary vacancy last 22 years when the Count’s son (Juan Carlos I) was officially designated as heir to the dual roles of head-of-state & commander-in-chief of the armed forces.”
Furthermore, Franco disliked Juan (father of Juan Carlos), whom he suspected of being an Anglophile (Franco despised the British and referred to Great Britain as “perfidious Albion”); he was also determined to be the sole arbiter of Spain’s destiny. And so he was. For the next thirty-six years, Franco remained the country’s unchallenged caudillo, or strongman, and although he declared Spain a monarchy once again, in 1947, he kept the throne empty, leaving Don Juan to languish and fret in neighboring Portugal, even as Franco himself assumed the role of dispenser of noble titles.
In a cruelly Shakespearean twist, Franco asked Don Juan to send him his son, Juan Carlos, who was then ten, to be educated and groomed under Franco’s supervision. In 1969, when Juan Carlos was thirty-one, Franco summoned him and informed the young man of his decision to make him his successor, with the title of King of Spain . (Excerpt from this article)
Juan Carlos met and consulted with Franco many times, standing next to him at ceremonies, publicly supporting his regime, and praising his government. Franco gave full control to Juan Carlos 3 weeks before his death in 1975. Juan Carlo’s position was further legitimized on 1977 when his father formally renounced his claim to the throne.
On paper, Juan Carlos retained fairly extensive reserve powers. He was the guardian of the Constitution and was responsible for ensuring that it was obeyed. In practice, since the passage of the Constitution (and especially since 1982), he took a mostly non-partisan and representative role, acting almost entirely on the advice of the government.
Juan Carlos enjoyed extreme popularity in Spain for many years until multiple scandals (detailed below) were made public about him and his family. As a result, he abdicated the throne on behalf of his son.
Coup D'Etat
Ever since the dictator Francisco Franco had died in 1975, Spain had been changing at the speed of light. Democratic reform was the watchword of the decade, and each reform came one after the other. King Juan Carlos had handed power to parliament and instituted a new constitution. It was all way too fast for Spain's conservatives. According to, it came to a head on February 23, 1981. Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Tejero led 200 members of the civil guard in invading the Cortes, Spain's legislature building. They fired shots in the air and took the parliament hostage.
Spaniards were glued to their television sets for 18 hours as the band of civil guards held the Cortes. King Juan Carlos appealed to the Spanish army to condemn these renegades and affirm their loyalty to the new constitution. The army did and the bandits had to retreat in shame, thus preserving Spain's democracy.
Shooting of Little Brother
In 1956, at age 18, he shot his younger brother Alfonso in the head while the two were playing with a revolver. He has maintained throughout his life that it was an accident, however Alfonso passed away as a result of his injuries.
The financial scandal
Juan Carlos’s daughter, Princess Cristina, is married to Inaki Urdangarin. Urdangarin and his ex-business associate, Diego Torres, were the leading figures in the Nóos Institute, a non-profit that secured no-bid contracts from the regional governments of Valencia and the Balearic Islands using Urdangarin’s influence.Urdangarin and Torres also used their non-profit to divert around €6.2 million from public contracts secured for organizing sports events into private accounts. Urdangarin’s wife, Cristina de Borbón, sat on the board of a company, Aizoon, that was allegedly used to channel part of these funds. She was made to testify in the case, and was ultimately fined for having benefited from her husband’s scheme, but was acquitted of tax fraud complicity.
In June 2018 he was sentenced to 5 years and 10 months in prison; he is currently imprisoned in Ávila.
The hunting trip
In 2012 the King injured himself on an elephant hunting trip in Botswana. At a time when Spainairds were suffering from a lagging economy, this trip was viewed as obscene in terms of expenses and extravagance. Spain’s unemployment was at 23%, and nearly 50% for young workers. To make matters worse, he was the honorary president of the Spanish branch of the World Wildlife Fund.
The public was only made aware of the trip because the King was injured and had to be helicoptered from the scene. Even worse - his mistress was there with him.
In 2014 Juan Carlos announced his plans to abdicate the throne in favor of his son, Felipe.
Post-Abdication Scandals
More recently, it emerged that Juan Carlos had accepted a previously undeclared “gift” of a hundred million dollars from Saudi Arabia’s late King Abdullah—allegedly a bribe in return for his help in arranging a lucrative fast-rail-construction contract.
Further roiling the public, one of Juan Carlos’s former lovers, a Danish-born events organizer named Corinna zu Sayn-Wittgenstein—who had accompanied him on his Botswana safari—has acknowledged that Juan Carlos had given her, some years ago, sixty-five million euros (worth about eighty-four million dollars at the time). This “gift” is believed to have come out of the funds given to Juan Carlos by King Abdullah.
The latest bombshell shaking the royal house involves secret audio recordings of princess Corinna zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, a German aristocrat living in Monte Carlo who for years has been romantically linked to the 80-year-old former king and now accuses him of using her name to buy property in Morocco, of accumulating a secret fortune hidden in several Swiss bank accounts under the name of one of his cousins, Alvaro d'Orleans Bourbon, of using fake cut-outs to commit tax fraud and of taking millions in commissions on state contracts.
As a result, the current King Felipe announced he would renounce his personal inheritance from his father and that his father would no longer receive a royal allowance. Afterwards, Juan Carlos vanished.
In August of this year (2020), Juan Carlos sent a public letter to King Felipe VI, saying that he would be leaving the country due to “the public repercussions that certain past events in [his] private life are generating.” Later reports speculated that he had either gone to Portugal, where his father, Don Juan de Borbón, lived in exile for part of his life, or to the Dominican Republic, which he has visited multiple times. It’s a sign that the figurehead of Spanish democracy understands that he has endangered his legacy—and the monarchy itself.
It has not been published where Juan Carlos is currently living, however photos have been obtained that appear to show Juan Carlos disembarking a plane in Abu Dhabi.
Read more:,took%20during%20Spain's%20financial%20crisis.
Juan Carlos married Princess Sofia of Greece and Denmark, daughter of the King of Greece in 1962. In an effort for young, suitable European royals to meet and mingle (and also to boost tourism in Greece), Sophia’s mother arranged a Mediterranean cruise on the Greek yacht Agamemnon in 1954. Several teenaged and twenty-something royals were invited on the trip touring a handful of Greek islands. Juan Carlos and Sofia were among the young royals on the cruise.
They met up at additional weddings and events over the next several years, and were officially reunited in Rome at the 1960 Olympic Games. The Greek royal family held a dinner for the Spanish guests onboard their ship, Polemistis. Following the Olympics, Juan Carlos and his family were invited to spend Christmas 1960 in Greece.
In 1961, Sofia traveled to the UK to attend the wedding of the Duke and Duchess of Kent. Juan Carlos was picked to serve as her escort. Following the wedding, Juan Carlos spent the summer of 1961 in Greece and the two announced their engagement in 1961.
Due to Juan Carlos’ uneasy position in Spain, an Athens wedding was planned for May, the beginning of the tourist season in Greece. The celebrations involved 4 ½ months of nearly round-the-clock preparation headed by Colonel Dimitri Levidis, Grand Marshal of the Greek royal court.
Their marriage has never been a happy one and Juan Carlos is known to have had multiple affairs. Though the King is in exile, they remain married, however it is known that they have lived largely separate lives for many years.
Their wedding and more
You can see him giving a speech in English here:
Queen Sofia (b. 1938)
Sofia is the eldest child of King Paul of Greece, and is the daughter, sister, wife, and mother of a King. She was educated at a boarding school in Germany, then studied childcare, music, and archeology in Athens. She was a reserve member of Greece’s gold medal winning sailing team at the 1960 Olympic games.
Sofia is now immensely popular in Spain. She is known to quietly endure the monarchy’s trials, putting her own professional obligations ahead of anything else. This was not, however, always the case. Throughout her reign she has been regarded with skepticism because of her foreign background and mediocre Spanish skills.
In 2008, Queen Sofía shared some of her political ideology during an interview with journalist Pilar Urbano. One of them was her belief that same-sex marriage should not be called marriage. "If those persons want to live together, dress up as bride and groom and get married, they can do so, but that should not be called marriage because it is not," the queen is quoted as saying in Urbano's book.
Her controversial comments about same-sex marriage particularly elicited outrage among liberal groups, and the Royal Palace quickly shared an apology but qualified it by implying she had been misquoted.
Though her husband is in exile, Sofia has remained in Spain and continues to undertake official duties on behalf of her son, the King. She is a vital weapon in Felipe VI’s battle to shore up the popularity of a monarchy hit by scandal and now, suggestions from some politicians that it might have seen better days. Consistently one of the most admired members of the Spanish Royal Family, the enduring affection and respect that Queen Sofía inspires will be needed by her son as he faces a turbulent future for the monarchy.
She speaks Greek, English, German and Spanish.
See her giving a speech in English
King Felipe VI (b. 1968)
Ascended the throne in 2014 upon the abdication of his father. He is head of state and commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armed Forces. He attended high school in Canada and studied at the Autonomous University of Madrid. He completed his academic studies by obtaining a Master of Science in Foreign Service degree from Georgetown, where he was the roommate of his cousin Crown Prince Pavlos of Greece.
From 1985-1993 he spent time completing his military training.
Felipe speaks Spanish, Catalan, French, English, and Greek.
He was a member of the Spanish Olympic sailing team at the Barcelona games in 1992 and was the Spanish team’s flag bearer.
The exact details around how Felipe and Letizia met are unknown, however it is reported that they met at a dinner party in 2003. They dated in secret for more than a year before surprising the public with their engagement in 2003.The two were married in 2004 in Madrid.
Her Gown
More on the wedding, more here
Watch their wedding (it POURED rain)
See Felipe meet Barack Obama (in English)
Author's Note: Google photos of Felipe. You won't be sorry.
Queen Letizia (b. 1972)
Letizia was born in Spain, the daughter of a journalist and registered nurse. She completed a bachelor’s degree in journalism as well as a master’s degree in audiovisual journalism. She worked as the evening anchor of the TVE evening news, the most viewed newscast in Spain. She reported from Washington DC in 2000 on the presidential elections, 2001 from Ground Zero, and 2003 from Iraq.
She was actually married once before Felipe to a writer and high school teacher after dating for almost 10 years. Their marriage lasted one year.
Letizia is far from Spain’s most popular member of the royal family. There was a public spat with her mother-in-law, and it made news when she scolded her fiance for interrupting her during their engagement interview.
She is known for her fashion and beauty. In 2008 she underwent surgery on her nose to “correct a respiratory problem”, however afterwards her nose was notably different.
Author's Note: I feel like I gave a negative impression of Letizia here, but to be honest it's a bit hard to find information about heher personality. I would love someone who is more familiar to fill us all in.
Watch her speak in English here
Felipe and Letizia have two daughters:
Crown Princess Leonor, Princess of Asturias (b. 2005)
Leonor is heir presumptive to the throne of Spain. She does not go by Crown Princess, but rather by Princess of Asturias, the title given to the heirs in Spain (like Prince of Wales in the UK). The Spanish monarchy operates under a system of male-preference cognatic primogeniture, meaning if Felipe were to have a male heir he would replace Leonor in the line of succession. Felipe and Letizia appear to be done having children, however.
In 2018, she was invested by her father with the Order of the Golden Fleece, the most senior order in Spain and the highest award the King can bestow. She is one of only 4 females to be inducted into it.
The other 3 women are Queen Elizabeth, Princess Beatrix, and Queen Margrethe of Denmark (no big deal!!!)
See the proud fathedaughter moment here.
In 2019, at age 14, she gave a speech in both English and Spanish at the Princess of Asturias Awards Ceremony. (such poise!!)
Another speech (her proud parents *I'm crying*!!)
Infanta Sofia (b. 2007)
Sofia is the second daughter of the King and Queen. She is a student in Madrid.
See photos of the family from Spain’s National Day on 10/12.
Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo (b. 1963)
Elena is the eldest child of King Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofia, however because Spain operates under male-preference cognatic primogeniture, her younger brother Felipe is King of Spain.
She married Jamie de Marichalar y Saenz de Tejada in Seville and has two children:
Elena and Jamie divorced in 2009. She undertakes engagements on behalf of her brother, the King.
Infanta Cristina, (stripped of title Duchess of Palma de Mallorca) (b. 1965)
Cristina was born in Madrid, the younger daughter of the King and Queen. She is a sailor and competed in the 1988 summer Olympics. She completed a degree in political science from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, then an MA in international relations from New York University in 1990. She then worked at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris.
She speaks Spanish, Catalan, English, French, and Greek.
Cristina married handball player Inaki Urdangarin in Barcelona in 1997. They have four children:
I talked about this above, but she and her husband were investigated and tried for fraud for their ties to a corruption scandal involving a company they owned. Cristina was acquitted, however her husband is currently serving a prison sentence.
Because of the scandal, her brother officially stripped her of her title in 2015. Her right of succession and the royal title of Infanta were unaffected.
Read more about the scandal here
Random note but the Spanish royals vacation in Palma de Mallorca for the summer each year and always produce some of my favorite family photos.
See some here, here, here, or just google them.
A Monarchy in Trouble
Though Felipe and his mother, Queen Sofia, are well-liked, support for the monarchy in Spain has always been thin at best. Coupled with all of the scandals discussed above, Felipe is tasked with saving a monarchy that at times is extremely unpopular with the public. He has had to publicly distance himself from his father, his sister, and other family friends involved in these scandals. This has eroded the appearance of family unity in the monarchy.
From an article:
Despite his attractive family and relative youth, Felipe has struggled to maintain the level of popularity he had heading into his current position. As head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces as well as king, he looks all-powerful on paper, but like many other royals his role is more figurehead than policy-maker. Spain's monarch is looked to for guidance and leadership, though, and he can certainly still be blamed when things go wrong.
Felipe, who in 2015 cut his own salary by almost 20 percent as the country continued to pull itself out of its recession, received a four-minute ovation after delivering his annual address marking the opening of Spain's new legislative session in February, in which he said that the opposing parties that have formed the current coalition government must come together, that "the time has come for words, for arguments and for reasoning, from a position of mutual respect."
To add to his troubles, Catalonia has been trying to split from Spain and gain independence for quite sometime, and Catalonian’s do not want a monarchy. In fact, they recently passed a non-binding motion condemning the monarchy in the wake of Juan Carlos’s departure from Spain. The proposal “Catalonia is a republic and does not want a king” was passed by 69 votes in favor and 65 against. In a recent article out of Catalonia, less than 15% of Catalans prefer having a king to a republic.
As a result, Felipe and Letizia have been pulling out all of the stops to present a united family front and a strong monarchy to the public - they have been undertaking public engagements more often, invited the press into their home, and we’re seeing more and more of their two daughters in an attempt to improve their favorability in Spain.
From 2018 -
From 2019 -
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2020.10.13 13:06 StevenStevens43 King Art Oenfer VI

King Art Oenfer VI
King Art Oenfer VI:
This, is another King Art Oenfer article.
It is King Art Oenfer VI.
However as King Art Oenfer is becoming part of a series, it would be silly to read the fifth part before reading the first, second, third & forth part, in that order.
So i will leave the link below for the previous articles, you can read them, then come back and read this one.
King Art Oenfer & Son - Part one
Gallus the Mac - Part two
King Art Oenfer III & The barbarica conspiriatio - Part three
King Art Oenfer V & IV - Part four
Link for photo
King Arthur
Constantine & Constans.
So, i will begin this article like a i begin a lot of articles, and that is investigating the claims made in British legends, and in particular, Geoffrey of Monmouth.
I will also be investigating the criticisms against Geoffrey of Monmouth's work, and attempting to establish whether those criticisms are constructive, or whether or not they expose the ignorance of certain modern day scholars and historians.
I will begin with a character named Ambrosius Aurelianus.
He is supposed to be a king of Britain that gets involved with another king of Britain, named Vortigern, whom has been covered in previous articles.
According to Geoffrey, Ambrosius Aurelianus is the son of Constantine.
The constantines will require no introduction, as the link between the Art Oenfer and the Constantines has been well and truly established in the previous Art Oenfer articles.
But for those that skipped the previous articles, then you will just have to take my word for it, that the Constantine family would now appear to be very much favourites for being the family behind "thee" actual alleged King Arthur, when we finally get there.
But we are not there yet.
Now, i will begin by pointing out modern day historians and scholars first dig at the slightly "gargled" Geoffrey of Monmouth.
Let us not forget, we are paying historians to research and report accurate non opinionated history, not to be grammar students.
Is two seperate things.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Ambrosius Aurelianus appears in later pseudo-chronicle tradition beginning with Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae with the slightly garbled name Aurelius Ambrosius, now presented as son of a King Constantine. King Constantine's eldest son Constans is murdered at Vortigern's instigation,
Link for photo#/media/File:Constantineiii.jpg)
Constantine III coin
So, was this Ambrosius Aurelianus mentioned in any official accounts, outside of those considered legendary.
The answer is in fact, yes.
In the accounts of Saint Germanus, there was a cleric named Constantius, and Constantius would most likely be the son of Constantine III, just like Geoffrey's Ambrosius Aurelianus.
Visit to Britain
Constantius also recounts the miraculous healing of the blind daughter of 'a man with tribunician power'.[2] This use of the word tribune may imply the existence of some form of post-Roman government system. However, in Constantius' lifetime tribune had acquired a looser definition, and often was used to indicate any military officer, whether part of the Imperial army or part of a town militia.
Germanus led the native Britons to a victory against Pictish and Saxon raiders, at a mountainous site near a river, of which Mold in North Wales is the traditional location.
Link for photo
Saint Germanus
Saint Germanus:
To find out why Saint Germanus is in Britain fighting a war during this period, please see this article below, and then come back and read this one, as i will not have enough room in this article to go over already covered ground.
The confessio of Saint Palladius <<<<< Link for article
Link for photo-_stained_glass,_Saint_Patrick-_detail.jpg)
Saint Patrick
Constantius of Lyon:
Now Constantius of Lyon was of very high standing and was very much a church leader.
Constantius of Lyon
Constantius of Lyon (fl. c. AD 480) was a cleric from what is now the Auvergne) in modern-day France, who wrote the Vita Germani, or Life of Germanus, a hagiography of Germanus of Auxerre. The hagiography was written some time during the second half of the fifth century, and was commissioned by Patiens, bishop of Lyon.[1]
Constantius was a friend of Bishop Lupus of Troyes and Sidonius Apollinaris, with whom he corresponded, and several letters from them are included in his published letter-collection.
Antipope Felix II:
And the Constantines have been held in high regard by the church ever since Constantine the Great issued the edict of Milan, and Constantinius II banished one Pope and installed another.
Antipope Felix II
Antipope Felix, an archdeacon of Rome, was installed as Pope in AD 355 after the Emperor Constantius II banished the reigning Pope, Liberius, for refusing to subscribe to a sentence of condemnation against Saint Athanasius.[1]
And Ambrosius Aurelianus was thought by Gildas, to be very much a church person.
His parents wore the purple.
According to Gildas
a gentleman who, perhaps alone of the Romans, had survived the shock of this notable storm. Certainly his parents, who had worn the purple, were slain in it. His descendants in our day have become greatly inferior to their grandfather's [avita] excellence. Under him our people regained their strength, and challenged the victors to battle. The Lord assented, and the battle went their way.[3]
Aristocratic robe:
And wearing purple is thought to have been a sign of high aristocracy.
During this era, Roman emperors and Church leaders, wore purple robes.
Scholarship questions
Roman emperors and male Patricians) wore clothes with a purple band to denote their class so the reference to purple may be to an aristocratic heritage.
Ambriosius family:
Now that i have cleared up that Constantinius is an elite church leader, i will tackle the first criticism of Geoffrey of Monmouth.
Apparently Geoffrey of Monmouth's claim that Ambrosius and Uther were hustled into exile in Brittany after the death of their parents, does not fit with the account of modern day historians and scholars choice of reliable historian.
Which is Gildas.
However, you just have to look at the quote above marked "according to Gildas", to see that Gildas speaks of Ambrosius Aurelianus's parents being slain.
Though he definitely appears to believe that Ambrosius Aurelianus survived.
So what the modern day historians and scholars have to say in the quote below, could be considered by some a black lie.
Perhaps an error, by others.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
King Constantine's eldest son Constans is murdered at Vortigern's instigation, and the two remaining sons (Ambrosius and Uther, still very young) are quickly hustled into exile in Brittany. (This does not fit with Gildas' account, in which Ambrosius' family perished in the turmoil of the Saxon uprisings.)
Constantine III:
And we already know that it is a fact that in 411 AD, Constantine III was executed.
Surrender and execution#Surrender_and_execution)
Constantius imprisoned the former soldier and had him beheaded on his way to Ravenna[citation needed] in either August or September 411.[25]#citenote-25) His head, on a pole, was presented to Emperor Honorius on 18 September. It was later displayed outside Carthage.[[26]](
Constans II:
And one of Constantine III's sons, was indeed executed by the historical Gerontius.
Thus, the Constantines being partly massacred is consistant with contemporary history.
[6]#citenote-constans2-6) With the support of the barbarians, Gerontius took over Constantine's territory; in 411, he captured the city of Vienne and put Constans to death.[[8]](
Link for photo#/media/File:Siliqua_Constans_II_Arelate.jpg)
Constans II coin
The Groans of Britain:
Now, in the quote below, Geoffrey is once again accused of Contradicting Gildas, who is alleged to have placed the Groans of Britain to a date between 440 AD and 450 AD, which contradicts Geoffrey's claim that Ambrosius could possible have been the son of a Constantine III that died 30 or 40 years before the Groans took place.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
The chronology offered by Geoffrey for the early life of Ambrosius contradicts Gildas and Nennius, and is also internally inconsistent.[16] The Groans of the Britons involves an appeal by the Britons to Roman consul "Agitius". This person has been identified with Flavius Aetius (d. 454), magister militum ("master of soldiers") of the Western Roman Empire and consul of the year 446. The Groans are generally dated to the 440s and 450s, preceding the death of Aetius. If Geoffrey's Constantine rose to the throne immediately following the Groans, this would place his reign in this period.[16]
Gemitus Britannorum:
So let us first look at what the Groans of Britain are.
But, i will just say first, whilst i am not going to look into it, i actually do not believe that Gildas even said this.
If he did, then he is the worst historian the world ever saw.
Quite simply, the Groans of Britain was a plee made by Britons to Rome for foreign aid after they were abandoned by Constantine III who had withdrawn the British military in order to attack and sack Rome between 407 AD and 410 AD.
The usurper Constantine III) had taken the last Roman troops from Britain in 407 and the civilian administration had been expelled by the natives a little later, leaving the inhabitants to fend for themselves during increasingly fraught times. Parts of the plea were recorded:[5]
410 AD:
This plee was made, and refused, in 410 AD, when Roman emperor Honorius decided to release Britain from roman rule, in order to reduce the amount of foreign aid he had to dish out, during the war.
I think modern historians and scholars get mixed up with when the story was written, with when the happenings the story is talking about, actually happened.
Is quite a common error i think.
Though amateurish, all the same.
Defence of Italy#Stilicho_and_the_defense_of_Italy)
The situation in Britain was even more difficult. The British provinces were isolated, lacking support from the Empire, and the soldiers supported the revolts of Marcus) (406–407), Gratian) (407), and Constantine III). Constantine invaded Gaul in 407, occupying Arles, and while Constantine was in Gaul, his son Constans) ruled over Britain.[14]#citenote-Bury,_pg._111-14) By 410, Britain was effectively told to look after its own affairs and expect no aid from Rome.[[15]](
Link for photo#/media/File:JohnWilliam_Waterhouse-The_Favorites_of_the_Emperor_Honorius-_1883.jpg)
Honorius during the famine
Geoffrey claimed:
Now, it simply continues to get "absolutely frightening".
The historians and scholars, based upon their own error, continue to narrate like it is a fact that Geoffrey states that Ambrosius Aurelianus was still in his infancy in the 460's AD.
This error is due to the fact that they have wrong dated the groans of Britain.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
.[16] Geoffrey's narrative has an underage Ambrosius, if not a literal infant, in the 460s. Accounts deriving from Gildas and Nennius place Ambrosius in the prime of his life in the same decade.[16]
Octa of Kent:
Contemporary historians and scholars continue to play on what they bagan with their own amateurish error regards to the groans of britain, and they point out that Geoffrey involves in the story of Ambrosius, a "6th century" British king... lol
Geoffrey of Monmouth
[16] Henginst's supposed son Octa is apparently Octa of Kent, a 6th-century ruler variously connected to Hengist as a son or descendant.
However, there is no lol about it.
It is quite contemporary that Octa was a 5th/6th century king, who is believed to have been quite possible the son of Hengist.
Therefore Hengist could easily have been part of the wars fought against Ambriosus in the 440's or 450's.
Ambrosius, even in Geoffreys accounts, were the Groans of Britain happened between 407 AD and 410 AD, would be well in his prime come the 440's.
And, i also assume if Octa ruled from 512 AD, then he was likely born sometime in the late 400's, (5th Century).
Octa of Kent
Octa (or Octha) (c. 500 – 543) was an Anglo-Saxon King of Kent during the 6th century. Sources disagree on his relationship to the other kings in his line; he may have been the son of Hengist or Oisc, and may have been the father of Oisc or Eormenric. The dates of his reign are unclear, but he may have ruled from 512 to 534
Next, modern day historians continue to attempt to make a mockery of Geoffrey, by naturally assuming that when Geoffrey talks about a character named Cheldric, he is talking about Cerdic of Wessex.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
A minor Saxon character called "Cherdic" is probably Cerdic of Wessex, though elsewhere Geoffrey calls the same king "Cheldric".
Link for photo
Cerdic of Wessex in his purple robe
Cedric of Wessex:
But, even though Cerdic of Wessex would appear to be related to aristocrats with his purple robe, why on earth would scholars think that Geoffrey, who is talking about a period of between 411 AD and 455 AD approximately, would be referring to Cedric of Wessex from 519 AD?
Cerdic of Wessex
Cerdic (/ˈtʃɜːrdɪtʃ/; Latin: Cerdicus) is cited in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as a leader of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, being the founder and first king of Saxon Wessex, reigning from 519 to 534 AD
Childeric I:
Quite simply, it is not a rational conclusion.
A far more likely conclusion, would be a likely ancestor of Cedric's from 437 AD.
Childeric I.
Childeric was the Frankish leader of Roman Gaul.
Childeric I
Childeric I (/ˈkɪldərɪk/; French: Childéric; Latin: Childericus; reconstructed Frankish: \Hildirīk*;[4] c. 437 – 481 AD) was a Frankish leader in the northern part of imperial Roman Gaul
Link for photo
Childeric I
Clovis I:
And Childrec I, is the father of Clovis I, who like his father, ruled over the Frankish kingdom, and also other parts of Roman Gaul.
And Clovis I also was married to a saint and was one of the earliest known Catholics.
Clovis I
Clovis is also significant due to his conversion to Catholicism in 496, largely at the behest of his wife, Clotilde, who would later be venerated as a saint for this act, celebrated today in both the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church. Clovis was baptized on Christmas Day in 508.[5] The adoption by Clovis of Catholicism (as opposed to the Arianism of most other Germanic tribes)
Link for photo.jpg)
Clovis I
Roman Gaul:
And these people were rulers of Roman Gaul, which during the time of Roman occupation, and slightly after it, included Southern Britain.
Link for photo
Roman Gaul
Next, the famous Merlin, that myth debunkers love to use as the classic mythological character.
Yet, reputable historians and scholars, commenting on history "should" know exactly who Merlin is.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
.[16] Vortigern's encounter with Emrys/Merlin takes place in this part of the narrative. Merlin warns Vortigern that Ambrosius and Uther have already sailed for Britain and are soon to arrive, apparently to claim his throne.
And this mythological Merlin, is quite obviously Merovech, grandfather of Clovis I, and the founder of the Merovingian dynasty.
Merovech (French: Mérovée, Merowig; Latin: Meroveus; c. 411 – 458)[1] is the semi-legendary founder of the Merovingian dynasty of the Salian Franks, which later became the dominant Frankish tribe. He is proposed to be one of several barbarian warlords and kings that joined forces with the Roman general Aetius against the Huns under Attila at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains in Gaul in 451. His grand-son Clovis I became the founder of the Frankish kingdom.
Link for photo
Death of Vortigern:
Now the next mythological claim from Geoffrey, is that Constantius/Ambrosius/Art Oenfer VI, defeated Vortigern in battle.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Ambrosius soon arrives at the head of the army and is crowned king. He besieges Vortigern at the castle of "Genoreu", which is identified with Nennius' Cair Guorthigirn ("Fort Vortigern") and the hillfort at Little Doward. Ambrosius burns the castle down and Vortigern dies with it.[16]
Pope Celestine I:
So is there any proof for those battles?
Well, yes, plenty.
To begin with, those people were in Britain fighting the heresy of Arianism, which was known as Pelagianism during this period, and it had swept the shores of Britain and Ireland after the 410 AD removal of the Roman empire from British shores, and Roman aristocrats were desperately trying to keep a hold of somekind of power in a devolving Britain.
Pope Celestine I
Pope Celestine I (Latin: Caelestinus I) was the bishop of Rome from 10 September 422 to his death on 1 August 432. Celestine's tenure was largely spent combatting various ideologies deemed heretical. He supported the mission of the Gallic bishops that sent Germanus of Auxerre in 429, to Britain to address Pelagianism, and later commissioned Palladius) as bishop to the Scots of Ireland and northern Britain. In 430,
Link for photo
Merovingian symbol
However, these elite Catholic leaders were not in Britain conducting a simple conversion.
They were fighting a brutal war, using military troops and forces, and they were also not just church leaders, but also kings, seeking more kingdoms for both their Churches, and kingships.
Visit to Britain
However, in Constantius' lifetime tribune had acquired a looser definition, and often was used to indicate any military officer, whether part of the Imperial army or part of a town militia.
Germanus led the native Britons to a victory against Pictish and Saxon raiders, at a mountainous site near a river, of which Mold in North Wales is the traditional location.
Link for photo
Germanus of Auxerre
Next, having killed Vortigern, Ambrosius/Constantinius/Art Oenfer turns his attention to the next Saxon leader, and apparently with only 10,000 men, defeats a Saxon army of 200,000.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Having killed Vortigern, Ambrosius next turns his attention to Hengist. Despite the fact that no earlier military actions of Ambrosius are recorded, the Saxons have already heard of his bravery and battle prowess. They immediately retreat beyond the Humber.[16] Hengist soon amasses a massive army to face Ambrosius. His army counts 200,000 men and Ambrosius' only 10,000 men.
The debate:
So, is there any truth in this?
Well, whilst there are no records of numbers, there was a war fought against saxons that resulted in apparently another victory for the up and coming Merovingians.
Saint Germanus referred to it as "the debate".
Germanus and the cult of Saint Alban
Immediately after the debate with the Pelagians, Germanus gave thanks for his victory at the grave of Saint Alban,
Link for photo.jpg)
Saint Alban
The field of Beli:
Now, Geoffrey, who appears to get his history from not only British accounts, but also foreign accounts, is again being rather unprofessional when he leaves modern day scholars and historians endlessly speculating where the field of Beli in Southern Britain could have been.
Was it Hatfield? Was it Wales? et cetera.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
He marches south and the first battle between the two armies takes place in Maisbeli, where Ambrosius emerges the victor. It is unclear what location Geoffrey had in mind. Maisbeli translates to "the field of Beli"
However if you look at the map below, you can see exactly were Belgae was.
Link for photo
Finally, the Saxons surrender, and they are pardoned by Amriosius/Constantinius/Art Oenfer VI, and they are relocated to the North east.
Modern historians and scholars speculate that this could be Bernicia, because Bernicia was settled by Angles in the 6th Century.
However, we are still only in the 5th Century.
The Catholics defeated the Pelagians, and Geoffrey speaks of Ambrosius assigning Merovech with a task of establishing a permanent memorial for the dead soldiers, and the site is called "the Giants ring".
But silly Geoffrey forgets that by the year 2000 Historians and scholars will not know where the giants ring is, and will declare it pseudo nonsense.
Though, most, will speculate that it is stonehenge.
Even though, right down the road from stonehenge, is the largest stone circle in Europe.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Following his victories and the end of the wars, Ambrosius organises the burial of killed nobles at Kaercaradduc. Geoffrey identifies this otherwise unknown location with Caer-Caradog (Salisbury). Ambrosius wants a permanent memorial for the slain and assigns the task to Merlin. The result is the so-called Giants' Ring.[16] Its location in the vicinity of Salisbury has led to its identification with Stonehenge, though Geoffrey never uses that term. Stonehenge is closer to Amesbury than Salisbury. The ring formation of the monument could equally apply to Avebury, the largest stone circle in Europe.[16]
Link for photo,Wiltshire,_UK-_Diliff.jpg)
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2020.10.11 22:26 stealthyfrog Evaluating the Stadia support of all third-party publishers and developers announced to be developing for Stadia in the June 2019 Stadia Connect

TL;DR: Ubisoft and Bethesda have been Stadia’s most prolific third-party publishers since launch, but Bethesda's future on Stadia is unclear with the in-progress Microsoft acquisition. 2K, Rockstar Games, Deep Silver, THQ Nordic, and Square Enix are unclear or sending mixed signals. Capcom, Bandai Namco, SEGA, and WB Games do not seem interested in future Stadia support. Other smaller developers have released their promised Stadia games or have titles in the works.
(It is also worth noting that more major publishers than listed here have released titles for Stadia. Activision and Konami have surprisingly brought Sekiro: Shadows Die Twice and Super Bomberman R Online, respectively, to the platform.)
This took longer than I thought it would to write up, but at least it wasn't as bad as the last gaming-related longpost I attempted and never followed through on.
submitted by stealthyfrog to Stadia [link] [comments]